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研究生:常修銘
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Ming Chang
論文名稱:馬戛爾尼使節團的科學任務-以禮品展示與科學調查為中心
指導教授:黃一農黃一農引用關係
指導教授(外文):Y-Long Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:科學任務禮品展示科學調查現代性論述中國觀
外文關鍵詞:Scientific MissionDisplay of PresentsScientific InvestigationModernization DiscourseViewpoint of China
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西方文明向以其科技與工業力量傲視全球,重智也一直是西洋文明的重要文化面向,而1793年使華的馬戛爾尼使節團則是探討這種現象的一個很好的案例,也是以另一種新觀點與新視野去重新思考中國近代史的不錯起點。
與前此來華的西方使團相比,使團除具有科學調查團的性質外,在禮品性質上亦具有特意展現英國文明特色(科技與工業)的特殊性。
使團特地攜帶了相當多的先進儀器和武器作為禮品,包括英國最新的工業產品、機械模型和科學儀器等二十九種,更有熱汽球、潛水鐘等新穎的科技裝置,希望能藉此突顯其在物質文明上的優越性。但既然禮品展示的主要目的並非為了來華傳播科學福音,則責怪乾隆未能把握現代化契機之「現代性論述」便於理無據。
使團經由科學調查所收集的各項中國技藝情報,如白銅、南京棉布、製茶等,對日後中國產品在世界市場上優勢的喪失具有一定程度的影響。而使團關於中國社會各個面向的觀察亦大異於耶穌會士在《中國書簡集》中所提供的中國圖像,因而重構與改寫了西方社會長期以來對於中國的良好印象與幻想,也為西方的中國熱畫下句點。
使團雖未達成外交任務,卻為西方帶來新的中國觀:從美好的中央王國 (The Middle Kingdom) 變成整個文明都停滯與落後的「混亂王國」(The Muddle Kingdom)。而中國人最終沒有了解到西洋文明的神髓,導致了接下來超過一個世紀在面對西方時的挫折。從這個角度來看,科學任務或許可說是使團唯一成功的任務。
Western civilization is used to be proud of its technology and industrial power in the world. Thinking highly of knowledge is also the important cultural aspect of the western civilization. Not only the Macartney embassy in 1793 is a good case for researching this kind of phenomenon, but also an alternative new perspective to reconsider the Chinese modern history.
Compared with the western embassy before, the Macartney embassy possessed the character of scientific investigation team and the specific characteristic of intentionally showing the English civilization (technology and industry) in the character of present as well.
The embassy purposely brought quite a few advanced instruments and weapons as presents, including the newest industrial manufactures, mechanical models and scientific instruments and so on (the total sum is 29). There are even novel technological devices, such as hot balloon and diving bell, in order to manifest the priority of its material civilization. However, the main purpose of displaying presents is not for transmitting scientific gospel, so blaming the emperor Qiang-long for not grasping the opportunity of modernization, so called “modernization discourse”, is not reasonable.
Collecting all kinds of Chinese technical information, such as paktong, nankeen, and tea-producing, by means of scientific investigation, the embassy had certain impacted on the lost of the world market advantage of the Chinese manufactures afterwards. Besides the embassy’s observation on every aspects of the Chinese society is apparently different from the Chinese image provided by the Jesuits, so it recast and rewrote the good impressions and fancies of western society on Chinese and ended the chinoiserie of the west at last.
Although the embassy failed to achieve the goal of the diplomatic mission, they brought the new viewpoint of China to the west: from “The Middle Kingdom” to “The Muddle Kingdom”, which its entire civilization lapsed into the state of stagnation and regression. Since the Chinese couldn’t realize the essence of the western civilization, it resulted in frustration over one century when facing the west. From this point, it could be said that scientific mission is the only successful one of the embassy.
中英文摘要
誌謝辭
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………....1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………1
第二節 研究回顧與史料舉隅……………………………………7
第三節 研究方法與章節架構………………………………….12
第二章 使團科學任務之源起……………………………………...15
第一節 作為科學調查團的馬戛爾尼使節團………………….15
第二節 禮品展示的目的與特殊性.……………………………19
第三節 科學任務的籌備過程..……………………………….23
第三章 展示英國:正大光明殿的英國博覽會…………………….29
第一節 使團研究中的「現代性論述」……………………….29
  第二節 重建場景:使團的禮品展示與御前實驗…………….32
第三節 乾隆真的「不貴奇巧」嗎?--現代性論述批判……….52
第四章 認識中國:使團的科學調查……………………………….71
  第一節 使團之前的英人在華科學調查……………………….71
  第二節 使團成員的在華科學調查.……………………………76
  第三節 廣州外銷畫與《英使報告》的出版………………….98
第五章 結論:重新書寫中國………………………………………117
參考文獻………………………………………………………………124
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