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研究生:青柳香
研究生(外文):Kaori Aoyagi
論文名稱:影響日本職業婦女出國留學之因素:以台灣的個案為研究對象
論文名稱(外文):Factors Affecting Decisions of Japanese Working Women to Study Abroad: Cases in Taiwan
指導教授:蔡錫濤蔡錫濤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ted Shir-Tau Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:國際人力教育與發展研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:其他教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:留學職業婦女推-拉模式質化研究深入訪談日本
外文關鍵詞:working womanstudy abroadpush and pull modelqualitative researchin-depth interviewJapanese
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:295
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
全球化趨勢之下,日本的企業主特別青睞具有跨文化經驗的求職者。學習外語的人口也與日劇增。但是,企業真正需要的人才不僅須具備外語能力,也須擁有多元文化的特質。隨著企業愈加重視出國留學的人才,愈來愈多日本就業婦女選擇出國留學,即使須辭掉原先的工作,亦在所不辭。影響他們出國留學的動機及因素很多。本研究採用「推-拉模式」。此一模式認為,推的因素包括:母國經濟狀況、就業婦女的限制、以及社會趨勢等,拉的因素包括:出國留學的益處、留學國的魅力、提供較佳的課程、移民的意願及熟人的推薦。本研究採用質性研究法中生命史研究法,以深入訪談的方式,訪問受訪者的生命經驗。研究發現三股主要的推力:過去的工作經驗(包含六部份:招募、工作職位、收入、工作職責、組織文化及辭職時機);文化及社會(包括五個部份:男性優勢文化、學歷文化、不佳的經濟與不平等的工作機會、加值的聲譽及雙語的熱潮);失敗的經驗(包括:幻滅的夢想、學習外語失敗的經驗)。同時,拉力有五個:他人的留學經驗、成就動機(包括:工作成就;技能成就及尋求契機)、台灣的魅力(包括安全、熟悉及距離近)、情感的考量(包括:對外國的好奇、對外國文化或語言的喜愛及對中國大陸的厭惡及恐懼)與媒體的資訊等。此外,親屬關係亦是影響的因素之一。
Under the global economy, employers in Japan are giving great interest in job applicants who have intercultural competences. There are increasing numbers of people who are interested in learning foreign languages than ever before. However the person whom companies really need is not the one with the fluency of foreign languages but the one with essence of being multicultural. Where companies do value people with study abroad experiences, there are more Japanese working women who chose to study abroad even that may require them to resign from their work once. There are many reasons and factors that motivate them to study abroad. This study uses ‘Push-Pull factor’ model, which views economic wealth and issues in a country as the major factors affecting their decision of studying abroad, to investigate on the research problem of what are the factors that are affecting decisions of Japanese working women to study abroad. Examples of ‘Push factors’ that occur within a source country include; issues in a society such as level of economic wealth, increased pressure in organization/economy, constraints for working women, and trends in society. Example of ‘pull factors’ that occur toward the host country include; Benefit of studying abroad, host country’s attractiveness such as desire to understand the host country, better courses provided, and intention of migration and recommendation from well known people. The life history of the qualitative research method with in-depth interview were used for this research in order for researcher to actively solicit the participants’ life experiences. After the deep-in depth interview with five research participants, it was found that there are three major push factors which are affecting decisions of Japanese working women to study abroad: Past work experience (6 major units in this part: (1) Recruitment, (2) job status/position, (3) income, (4) Duties/tasks, (5) Organization Culture and (6) Timing for resignation), Culture and society (5 major units in this part: (1) Male dominant culture, (2) Diplomaism, (3) Bad economy and unequal job opportunity, (4)Valued reputation, and (5) Bilingual Boom) and Experience of Failure(2 major units in this part: (1) Failed dream, and (2) Failed at making progress by learning foreign language). At the same time, there are 5 major pull factors which affect decision of Japanese working women to study abroad: Experience of others ((1) Others' study abroad experiences), Ambition for achievement (3 major units: (1) Career achieve, (2) Skill achieve, and (3) making turning point), Attractiveness of Taiwan (3 major units (1) Safe, (2) familiarity, and (3) close distance), Emotional Considerations (3major units (1) Curiosity of foreign country, and (2) admiration of foreign culture/language(3) fear/hate of china), and finally the Information from media. Factors other than push and pull, such as relational factors are also affecting their decision of studying abroad.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract…………………………………………………………………….I
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………….II
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………VI
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………….V
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….1
Background of the study………………………………………..1
Statement of the Problem/Question………………………4 Purposes of the Study………………………………………………..5
Significance of the Study……………………………………………….7
Delimitations and Limitations………………………………………10
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………..11
CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………….13
Key elements for Studing Abroad…………………………14
Pressures under the new economy…………………………25
Working women in Japan…………………………..……….30
Social status of Japanese women………………………..……….34
Booming Bilingual business in Japan……………………...…44
Attractiveness of Taiwan…………………….………...…50
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………53
Research Framework…………………………..………………53
Research Procedure………………………………………56
Research Subject………………………………………………..57
Data Collection………………………...…………………59
Data Analysis………………………………………………..61
Validity and Reliability…………………………………………..63
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS………………………………………………66
Case of Kaholi………..…………………………………..67
Case of Namie………..…………………………………………..78
Case of Sakiko………..………………………………………………..86
Case of Degawa………..…………………………………………………95
Case of Eiko………..…………………………………………………..102
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………108
Conclusion…………………………...………………….108
Suggestions………………………………...……….…….117
References…………………………………...………………….121
APPENDIX……………………………………………..…………127
Appendix A…………..…………………………………………..127
Interview documents…..……………………………………..127
Appendix B …………………………………………………..131
Data Analysis and transcriptions……………………………..133
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日本経済新聞夕刊(2002, April 15)リストラされてもアジアがある

AERA 2003,September 3)「海外大卒業の就職力」



















APPENDIX A

Interview document

1) Interview Introduction

リサーチに御協力して頂きどうも有難うございます!
本研究は、皆様がどのような理由、経験、及び動機により海外留学をされるまでに至ったかを調べるもので、特に日本で既に職務経験の有る方のみを対象としております。

主な質問内容は:

1. 仕事を辞めてまで海外留学をしたその「理由ときっかけ」
 何処から海外留学のアイデアが生まれましたか?(雑誌,本,その他?)
 将来のキャリアプラン/職業成功に向けての目標等が、海外留学に踏み切った理由に関係していますか?
 過去の会社での経験等が海外留学に踏み切った理由と関係していますか?
 日本の労働市場での女性雇用凍結等、なかなか職に就きにくい現状が貴方様の海外留学理由と関係していますか?
 過去、「日本の会社は女性よりも男性を優先して就職させている」と感じたことはありますか?
又そう感じたことによって海外留学の事を考えるようになったと思いますか?
 以前働いていた会社で不平等な待遇を受けたことが有りますか?(総合職になかなかつけない、事務職のみ、御茶くみ、給料が男性より少ない/初任給が男性より少ない)
 他の研究では女性が仕事を辞める理由として ①残業が多い ②給料が少ない ③会社の将来が不安 ④現在の職が正社員扱いではないから(派遣等)⑤外の雇用市場での自己の能力評価が現在の職場での評価と一致しない為(ジョブマッチング)等が挙げられています。
貴様が仕事を辞められた理由はこの内に在りますか?その他


2. 何故日本国内で語学学習をするという道を選ばず、海外留学を選択したか
 海外留学から得られるものとしてどのような事が考えられますか?
(語学習得、文化習得、将来職業選択の幅が広がる、台湾国内での仕事を得る等)
 日本国内にて外国語(中国語)の勉強するのと違いどのようなメリットが有ると思いますか?
(仮にあなたともう一人の日本人女性が中国語のテストで同じ点数を取ったとします。貴方は台湾にて中国語を習得しましたが、もう一人の女性は日本の大学で中国語を習ったとします。会社側から見てどう評価に違いが出ると思いますか?又、貴方は何をアピールしますか?)

3. 将来のキャリアプランについて。
 日本に帰って再度就職するつもりか、もしくは台湾 /海外にて就職するつもりか

4. 日本での女性差別待遇について、海外留学後自身の社会的不平等の待遇が少なくとも改善されると思うか。もしくはそう信じているか。

<リサーチをするにあたって>
*インタビューは昼食(こちらで用意させて頂きます)等を摂りながら雑談をする様な形式で行います。

*名前はすべて匿名を使います。

*プライバシーを守る為人物を特定可能にする事が可能な文章、害に成りえる事はすべて省略します。

*又記載される文の同意を得た上で本研究は発表します。

*将来「台湾における日系会社に助言を行う」という目的の下、貴方様方が台湾の日系企業に対し、どのような考えを持っているのか、どう変わって欲しいと期待しているのか、もしくは女性に対しどう待遇してくれれば台湾の日系会社が魅力的に感じるか等、お教え下さい。
*又同等の事を日本国内での会社にどう期待をしているかお教え下さい!

名前:青柳 香  電話:0939504366 住所:新店市中央新村一街49号8F
E-mail: kaoyagi@hotmail.com
過去高校大学をオーストラリアで過ごし、台湾師範大学語学中心にて8ヶ月中国語を学ぶ。後、台湾新幹線プロジェクトにて3年半働く。現在師範大学大学院にて就学中
2) Interview guide

       号   年 月 日
年齢   歳     未婚・既婚(既婚の場合ご主人は台湾人・日本人?)

 ご家族はどんな方ですか?(兄弟、親戚に海外経験有る人がいる?、ご両親の考え、Open?)

 友達はどんな方ですか?(小学校、中学校、高校、大学)

 海外旅行は好き?何処に行ったことがある?家族で?友達と?計画旅行?ツアー?

 ご両親は留学に対し反対はしなかった?

 御自身は小さい頃なにに成りたかった?大学の頃は何を目指した?キャリアウーマン?

 親戚、友達の姉等にキャリアウーマンはいる?彼女に対しどう思う?

 自分の性格をどう思う?内向的/外交的?積極的?友達を作るのは好き?日本で外国人の友達はいた?

 日本で語学学校(Aeon, Ecc等)に通ったことがある?

 語学留学(短期も含む)をしたことがある?又は親族、友人に留学経験者がいる?

 小さい頃から現在に至って御自身を取り巻く環境(小学校、中学校、高校、大学)

 以前働いていた頃について


1. 以前働いていた会社は何系?(E.g.サービス系)
2. 何をする会社?(名前は伏せたままで可)
3. 何職に就いていた?(事務?経理?秘書?営業?)
4. 残業は多い?
5. 仕事をしていて良かったと思ったことは?
又仕事上どのようなやりがいを感じた?
6. 厳しかった?(時間、作業、規則等)
7. 子供を生んでからも仕事を続けている同僚がいた?
8. 将来子供は欲しいと思う?(欲しくない場合はその理由: 
9. 家から近い?
10. 仕事をしていた時は一人暮らし・家族と同居だった?
11. 何年働いた?
12. 上司との仲は良かった?(よく食事に一緒に行く、話しをする等)
13. 辞めたいと頻繁に思った?もしくはその理由は?
14. 企業内の雰囲気は良かった?
いじめにあう同僚を見たことがある?もしくは経験がある?
15. 男性だったらと思ったことがある?
16. 仕事と家事の両立は大変だと思う?
家事は将来夫にもしてもらいたいと思う?


 台湾の日系企業に対し、どのようなイメージを持っている?
(どう変わって欲しいと期待する?)
(もしくは女性に対しどう待遇してくれれば台湾の日系会社が魅力的に感じる?)
 又同等の事を日本国内での会社にどう期待する?
















APPENDIX B

Screening Procedure

The procedure of finding the research participants was:
1. Visiting Teacher’s room of either 8th or 9th floor at NTNU Mandarine language center and ask if any of them have a Japanese female students who have work experience in Japan before.
As most of classes are either from 8:10 to 10:10, 10:20 to 12:10, or 14:10 to 16:10 (2 hours class), I visit teachers’ rooms before class starts, middle of the breaks, or after class finished.
2. After I received any information of Japanese female who studying in their classes, (often teachers gave me their students’ name and very brief information of her Japanese female students), I go visit the rooms which had told by the teachers.
3. Reconfirm whether she is an Japanese woman and used to work in Japan before. If yes, asks her whether she can participate in this research or not.
4. If yes, book the schedule for the 1st interview
5. Chat briefly, explaining briefly about the content of my research, purpose, and myself. At this stage, often these Japanese female students were willing to give me some brief information of themselves as well.






1) First screening of participants
  Name of women who were talked to nationality work experience age group marital status reminding
  Job status   nationality of husband
1 Sekiya Japan Yes temporary early 30s No - Interviewed
2 Nakamura Japan Yes temporary  early 30s No - Interviewed
3 Gomifuchi Japan No - early 20s No -  
4 suzuki Japan Yes fulltime mid 20s Yes Japan Interviewed
5 asano Japan Yes temporary late 20s Yes Taiwan  
6 kitazawa Japan Yes unknown unknown No -  
7 katou Japan Yes unknown unknown No -  
8 Yi Korean Japanese Yes unknown unknown Yes Japan  
9 Tanaka Japan Yes fulltime early 40s Yes Japan  
10 oguma Japan Yes fulltime   Yes Japan
11 kanasiro Korean Japanese Yes fulltime late 30s Yes Japan  
12 Hirose Japan Yes fulltime Late 20s No -  
13 Shigiyama Japan Yes fulltime late 20s No - Interviewed
14 Kinebuchi Japan Yes fulltime late 20s Yes Japan Interviewed

For the selection of research participants, various types of job status and age groups, as well as marital status were concerned to be selected. Also, those who are willingness to participate became prior choice for the sample selection.
2) Final selection of participants
Name nationality work experience age group marital status length of stay in Taiwan
job status length of work exp nationality of husband
1 Sekiya Japan Yes temp total app.10yr early 30s No 1 yr
2 Nakamura Japan Yes temp total app. 8yr early 30s No 1yr
3 suzuki Japan Yes full app.2yr mid 20s Yes Japan 1yr
4 Shigiyama Japan Yes full 3 yr late 20s No 4 month
5 Kinebuchi Japan Yes full 4 yr late 20s Yes Japan 1yr


Data Analysis and transcriptions

As it was stated in Chapter III (p63), for coding process, the author gathered rich data from multiple sources- field notes, formal interview transcripts, and own tape-recorded reflections, and began with broking down the interviewees’ comments into precise concepts, or in other words, “units of meaning”. More than 100 loosely worded codes were created and then they were refined into the 32 units, 11 topics, 4 rightmost categories in the coding diagram. Next, author grouped these into broader conceptual categories, according to the common features between the concepts, creating the 11 axial categories. Then relationships were explored between categories by comparing them with each other and with the literature. It was found that the axial categories fit into the classification of push factors and pull factors or other factors affecting decisions of people to study abroad

Examples
code concept Units topic
E1-01-01 Chose to come to Taiwan with husband as he was expatriated to Taiwan and we did not have children. relational family relational
E1-01-02 I was waiting for the timing for quitting job so did not have any hesitation for staying Japan alone for own job timing for resignation past work experience
E1-02-04 Many colleagues had changed the workplace but I didn’t have timing
E1-03-09 I did not have chance to quit but finally had a timing for resignation
E1-01-03 Overnight works and tough working environment with strict rules made her (as well as many colleagues) think about resigning from job duties/tasks
E1-02-05 I wish I could work for smaller clinic as their duties are not too tough, and as I thought about after having my own children.
E1-02-06 (Duties of current job were heavy, and if I think about having children,) I cannot stay with children during the weekend and/or night sometimes so I feel sorry for them.
E1-03-07 When I start seeking my turning point (to work in another way), I had chance to reset myself so became full of hope for the new life in Taiwan which let me to try many things I wanted to do before but did not have time in Japan making turning point ambition for achievment
E1-03-08 After reset myself (enjoy the life in Taiwan), I go back to Japan to work but challenge new kinds of job this time
E1-03-10 It’s good to relax and look back myself and think about myself and plan for the future. So it is great benefit I came to TW. finding new thought and self benefit
E1-04-11 I think this is great benefit for me that I could have time to look and think about myself to see what I really want in the future
E1-04-12 When I was in Japan, I knew only nurse, but I got known many kinds of people here and this is very important for nurse to understand the thought of many people. knowing new people
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