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研究生:孫亦瑩
研究生(外文):Yi-Ying Sun
論文名稱:測量家犬的行為與性格:與台灣地區家犬的攻擊性與恐懼程度相關的因子
論文名稱(外文):Measuring Behavior And Temperament Traits in Pet Dogs:Factors Contributing to Aggressive And Fearful Behavior of Pet Dogs in Taiwan
指導教授:許鈺鸚
指導教授(外文):Yu-Ying Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生命科學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:家犬攻擊性恐懼程度問卷調查飼養環境
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每隻狗的性情大不同,除了與狗本身相關的因素像是品種、性別、年齡有關之外,隨著家犬被飼養的環境與條件不同,也可能產生不同的行為表現。犬隻如果展現攻擊行為,例如:吠叫、前撲、甚至咬人或其他動物,往往會造成飼主的困擾,並會對受到攻擊的人或其他動物造成心理與生理的影響。在犬類的攻擊行為中,由恐懼而誘發的往往最為嚴重。在國外,家犬的攻擊性與恐懼程度是最常被研究與討論的犬類行為。台灣的人養狗比例雖然相當高,但是台灣對家犬行為的研究卻很少。在台灣有30%的人棄養狗是因為那些狗的行為問題。而台灣的人棄養狗時,多傾向將狗任意丟棄,而非送入收養中心,因此會衍生出一些相關的社會問題,例如流浪狗攻擊行人的事件等等。本研究使用問卷測量台灣家犬的攻擊性與恐懼程度並分析可能與其相關的一些因子。本研究分析的因子包括(一)狗本身相關的因子如性別、年齡、體型、結紮與否等等、以及(二)狗的被飼養環境與情況。本研究採用Hsu & Serpell( 2003 )所設計的問卷Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire( CBARQ )。CBARQ將犬隻常見的行為分成七大類,分別是(一)可訓練程度與服從性、(二)攻擊性、(三)恐懼程度、(四)易激動性、(五)分離焦慮、(六)跟隨與尋求關注傾向與(七)其它行為等共一百題。此問卷經過信度與效度的測試並被翻譯成各種語言版本在世界各地進行研究。本研究將( CBARQ )翻譯成中文( TvCBARQ )並加入與犬隻相關的問題後,透過獸醫院以及調查者,在台灣各地發放以蒐集資料。本研究藉由蒐集到的資料以測量TvCBARQ問卷的信度,再利用驗證性因素分析( Confirmatory Factor Analyses ) 將TvCBARQ與之前問卷( CBARQ )作因素結構( factor structure )的比較。最後透過順序性邏輯回歸分析( Ordinal Logistic Regression Analyses )的統計方法,分析那些因子可能與台灣家犬的攻擊性以及恐懼程度相關。
用TvCBARQ量化台灣家犬的11類行為時,其中10類行為的信度大於0.70;然而,與疼痛有關的行為之信度只有0.67。驗證性因素分析則指出台灣之TvCBARQ問卷與原始之CBARQ問卷的因素結構不完全相同。因此本研究利用探索性因素分析將TvCBARQ分成8類行為。本研究亦發現許多與台灣家犬的攻擊性與恐懼行為相關的因子。就與狗本身相關的因子來說,體型大的狗與體型為中、小型的狗比起來,對陌生人及飼主之攻擊性較弱,同時其恐懼程度也較低;年齡較大的狗、公狗、或者沒有結紮的狗,對飼主的攻擊性較強;被其他狗欺負過的家犬,對其他狗的攻擊性較強。就與家犬的飼養環境相關的因子來說,其飼主家中成員數越多,此家犬對陌生人、飼主及其他狗的攻擊性較強,恐懼程度也較高。居住在獨棟有院子的家犬比居住在公寓、電梯大樓、獨棟沒有院子的家犬,對陌生人的攻擊性較強;居住在東部的家犬比居住在北、中、南部的家犬,對其他狗的攻擊性較強;居住在鄉村的家犬比居住在城市、市郊的家犬,對其他狗的攻擊性較強;若飼主養狗的主因為看家,則其養出來的狗對陌生人及對其他狗會呈現出較高的攻擊性;非寵物店買來的狗比從寵物店買來的狗,對陌生人的攻擊性及對其他狗的攻擊性較強;飼主每天與所飼養的狗相處時間越長,其狗對飼主的攻擊性越弱;飼主每天帶其所飼養的狗外出散步的頻率若低於1次,該狗對飼主的攻擊性較強,恐懼程度也較高。
本研究建議飼主在飼養寵物狗之前,除了挑選喜歡的狗之外,也應多評估自己的飼養條件以及能給予狗的環境,並且要暸解飼養狗的義務,像是能照顧狗的時間、能帶狗散步的頻率,才不會讓所飼養的狗產生較高的攻擊或恐懼性。而本研究也顯示台灣家犬之攻擊性與恐懼程度呈顯著的正相關;因此當我們考慮台灣家犬攻擊性的議題時,也應該同時參考狗的恐懼程度。
目錄……………………………………………………………………1

自序……………………………………………………………………2

特別感謝………………………………………………………………3

摘要……………………………………………………………………5

前言……………………………………………………………………8

材料與方法……………………………………………………………20

結果……………………………………………………………………25

討論……………………………………………………………………46

參考文獻………………………………………………………………54

附錄……………………………………………………………………64
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