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研究生:黃馨週
研究生(外文):Hsin-chou Josephine Huang
論文名稱:台灣學生英語網路閱讀策略及閱讀理解之探討
論文名稱(外文):EFL Learners’ Online Reading Strategy Use and Text Comprehension: An Exploratory Study
指導教授:陳秋蘭陳秋蘭引用關係林至誠林至誠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiou-lan ChernChih-cheng Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:307
中文關鍵詞:閱讀策略第二外語閱讀網路閱讀
外文關鍵詞:reading strategysecond language readingweb-based reading
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從第二語言閱讀研究發現,運用閱讀策略可以幫助理解。唯目前研究大多著重於文本閱讀策略的探討,有關網路閱讀策略的使用,及其對不同程度學生閱讀理解力之影響的研究仍相當有限。故本研究目的為探討以英語為外語學習者,網路閱讀策略之使用,分析閱讀策略的使用對理解力的影響,及評估學生對網路英文閱讀課程(English Reading Online)之看法。
此網路英文閱讀課程是為達到前述兩項研究目的而建置的。除了可以幫助學生有效閱讀網路文章外,還可以做為收集學生網路閱讀策略的工具。本網站之設計呼應文獻上所提到的各式閱讀策略,以追蹤學生策略使用情形。網路閱讀課程共設計15個閱讀策略按鈕機制。整體性策略的設計,包括提供文章導讀、關鍵字彙、文章大綱、及文章預測等按鈕。解決問題策略則設計了線上摘要、閱讀速度訓練、文章朗讀、及語意圖等機制。輔助性策略有線上字典、線上文法、線上翻譯、線上劃記、及個人化筆記本等。社交情意策略則設計有網路聊天室及音樂播放。
本研究之對象為三十位科技大學應用英語系大二的學生,依英文程度分為高、低兩組。所要閱讀的四篇文章,包含四個主題,其中兩篇較易,兩篇較難。文章依難易順序分八週讀完。閱讀完後,學生必須填好讀後問卷,並回憶文章內容,寫下中文摘要,做為閱讀理解測驗。學生每讀完一篇文章後並接受訪談。每位同學網路閱讀的過程,全程由螢幕追蹤軟體錄下,而按鈕的況狀也由電腦記錄。收集到的閱讀策略按鈕資料,由卡方檢定探究是否語言程度、文章主題、及難易度會影響策略使用。此外,閱讀理解分數細分為主旨得分與細節得分,並以迴歸統計分析策略運用對理解力之效用。而讀後問卷則由敘述統計描述學生對網站的看法。最後,質性探討四個案例,則可以彌補前述量化資料不足之處。
本研究結果發現,學生絕大多數使用輔助性策略,解決問題策略則屈居最後。策略的運用似乎受到網路閱讀環境中學生即時回饋的需求,以及傳統閱讀教學模式的影響。此外,由質性探討所衍生出的新策略有瀏覽策略、資訊收集策略、介面改變策略、以及使用問題報告策略。這些策略可以幫助學生順暢瀏覽網站,運用新知增加背景知識,建立個人化閱讀環境,及提供更友善的網路設計。本研究除了發現網路閱讀策略使用模式之外,結果亦顯示有四項因素影響策略使用,即語言程度、文章主題及難易度、電腦技巧、及背景知識。
就策略運用對理解力的影響而言,雖然輔助性策略使用最頻繁,而且對各層次的閱讀理解力均有所助益;但是,單靠輔助性策略並不能預測較艱深文章之主旨與細節的得分,必須要搭配使用整體性策略。而整體性策略的使用,對於經常只使用輔助性策略及社交情意策略的低組同學,在閱讀困難文章時最有幫助。
最後,本研究結果顯示,大多數同學對此英文閱讀網站中,輔助閱讀機制的設計、介面設計、及對語言學習的功效抱持正面的態度。同學們也期盼能將網路閱讀融入課程當中。
綜合上述結果,本研究提供以下教學建議。其一、策略導向教學應融入閱讀課程中。網路閱讀策略,如搜尋及綜合資訊以及如何增加社群互動,應該重視。其二、整體性策略可以輔助英文較弱的同學閱讀困難的文章,應該鼓勵使用。其三、閱讀網站設計可以加入更多個人化及文章選擇的機制,以期達到最佳閱讀效果。
The bulk of L2 reading research has shown that prospective readers use various reading strategies to facilitate comprehension, but relatively few studies have centered on online reading strategy use and its effects on the reading comprehension of students with different language proficiencies. This study aimed to investigate EFL learners’ online reading strategies, to study the effects of strategy use on comprehension, and to evaluate a web-based reading program, English Reading Online, which was constructed to fulfill the first two purposes of this study.
The design of this online reading program echoed reading strategy patterns found in L2 reading literature and the action of clicking on a certain strategy function button online was traced to reflect a reader’s particular strategy use. There were 15 strategy buttons: Global strategy design provided students with previews, keywords, and outlines of the reading texts as well as chances to make predictions. Problem-solving strategy mechanisms included online summary services, reading-rate training, text-to-speech software, and semantic mapping tools. Support strategy functions were provided by online dictionaries, online grammar resources, an online translation mechanism, highlighting tools, and individualized electronic notebooks. Socio-affective strategies were displayed by online chatrooms, discussion boards, email services, and music boxes.
Thirty Applied English majors, divided into a High group and a Low group based on their proficiency levels, were asked to read a total of four authentic online texts of two difficulty levels. They also completed a post-task survey, wrote written recalls, and attended interview sessions after reading. Each participant’s navigation path in doing these four reading tasks was tracked by the computer system to collect their pre-defined strategies; each navigation path was also videotaped by a screen-capturing software to collect newly emerging strategy patterns. Strategy use data was analyzed by the Chi-square test to examine if strategy use was influenced by language proficiency, the text topic, and the text difficulty levels. Written recalls were scored according to two categories: main ideas and details. The relationship between students’ strategy use and comprehension was computed using multiple regression. The post-task survey on program feedback was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Finally, qualitative investigations of four case studies gathered from videotaping and interviews were used to supplement the quantitative data mentioned above.
The results showed that due to learners’ concern of convenience and immediacy, Support strategies made up the overwhelming proportion of strategy use and Problem-solving strategies were used the least. Other strategies emerging from qualitative investigation—including Navigating strategies, Information gathering strategies, Interface changing strategies, and Usability problem reporting strategies—assisted readers in navigating online texts smoothly, finding relevant information to build up background knowledge, establishing a personal environment to facilitate online reading, and making suggestions for user-friendly web design. Additionally, four factors that influenced online reading strategy use were language proficiency, the text topic and difficulty level, computer skills, and background knowledge.
In relating strategy use with comprehension, the use of Support strategies dominated the strategy use and contributed to most of the comprehension gains, but an exclusive dependence on Support strategies did not successfully predict the increase in scores on main ideas and details when the students were reading more challenging texts. It was the use of Global strategies that significantly contributed to better comprehension. The effects of Global strategies were most evident among the Low group, who often confined themselves to the use of Support strategies and Socio-affective strategies in reading.
Finally, students provided positive feedback on this program in terms of the design of the strategy tools, interface design, and learning effects. They also welcomed the possibility of including online reading in the existing curriculum.
Findings of this study bear important pedagogical implications. First, strategy instruction needs to be integrated into reading classes. Online reading strategies about how to find and synthesize information and how to increase social interaction need to be addressed. Second, Global strategies, which aided low achievers’ comprehension of difficult texts, should be encouraged. Third, more personalized features and more choices for text selection should be included in the future program design.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Rationale 5
Purpose of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
Second Language Reading Strategy 8
Classification of Language Learning Strategies 8
Taxonomy of L2 Reading Strategies 11
Individual Differences in Strategy Use 13
Reading Strategy Instruction 22
Component Skill Approach to Reading 28
Approaches to Reading 28
Automatic Recognition Skills 32
Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge 34
Formal Discourse Structural Knowledge 35
Content and World Background Knowledge 37
Synthesis and Evaluation Skills 38
Metacognitive Knowledge 39
Hypertext Second Language Reading 41
The Nature of Media, Multimedia, Hypertext, and Hypermedia 41
Hypermedia and L2 Learning 42
Hypertext Reading Strategies 46
The Use of Glosses 46
Individual Differences 49
Online Reading Strategies—Comparisons, Labels, and Effects of Strategy Use 50
Technology Integration and Reading Skill Development 57
Technology and Automatic Identification Skills 58
Technology and Vocabulary Development 60
Technology and Rhetorical Patterns 61
Technology and Content Background Knowledge 62
Technology and Synthesis Strategies 63
Technology and Socio-Affective Strategies 66
Web-Based Reading Programs 68
Reading Programs Outside of Taiwan 68
Technology-Enhanced Self-Access Reading Program 69
Extensive Reading Online Program 71
Metacognitive E-Reading Platform 73
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 75
Design of the Online Reading Program 75
Reading Texts 76
Reading Strategy Support Functions 80
Computer Tracking System 100
Design of the Study 102
Participants 102
Instruments 103
The Background Questionnaire 103
Videotaping of Screens 104
Semi-Structured Interviews 104
Recall Protocols 107
Post-Task Survey and Final Reflection 112
Data Collection Procedures 113
Data Analysis Procedures 114
Research Questions, Data Collection Methods, and Data Analysis Procedures 116
CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSES and RESULTS 118
Results of the Background Questionnaire 118
Pre-Defined Reading Strategies in English Reading Online 123
Frequency of Strategy Use 123
Distribution of Strategy Use by All Students 124
Distribution of Strategy Use by the High and the Low Groups 126
Strategy Use Across Topics by All Students 130
Strategy Use Across Topics by the High and the Low Groups 132
Strategy Use Across Difficulty Levels of the Text by All Students 136
Strategy Use Across Difficulty Levels of the Text by the High and the Low Groups 138
Time on Strategy Use 143
Total Time Spent on Each Strategy Button 143
Strategy Button Sequence 146
Relationships Between Strategy Use and Recall Scores 148
The Regression Model 150
The Total Recall Score 152
All Students 152
The High Group 153
The Low Group 154
The Recall Scores on Main Ideas 156
All Students 156
The High Group 157
The Low Group 158
The Recall Scores on Details 160
All Students 160
The High Group 161
The Low Group 162
Perceptions of English Reading Online 164
Results From Post-Task Survey 164
Feedback on the Fifteen Strategy Buttons 164
Feedback on Web-Based Features 167
Feedback on Interface Design and Learning Effects 168
Results From Final Reflection 168
Reflections on Articles 169
Reflections on Web Features 173
Overall Feedback 178
Correlation Between Strategy Button Usage and Questionnaire Results 180
Results From Videotaping and Semi-Structured Interviews 182
Qualitative Investigation of Four Participants 182
Case 1: James—A High Group Student With Average Computer Skills 183
Case 2: Chris—A High Group Student With Good Computer Skills 186
Case 3: Amber—A Low Group Student With Average Computer Skills 189
Case 4: Tim—A Low Group Student With Good Computer Skills 192
Other Online Strategies Emerging From the Four Cases 196
Navigating Strategy 196
Information Gathering Strategy 197
Interface Changing Strategy 197
Usability Problem Reporting Strategy 198
Summary of Results 199
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 203
Overview of the Study 203
Online Reading Strategy Patterns 204
Online Reading Strategy Types 206
Global, Problem-Solving, Support, and Socio-Affective Strategies 206
Other Strategies: Navigating, Information Gathering, Interface Changing, and Usability Problem Reporting Strategies 211
Language Proficiency 213
Text Topic and Difficulty Level 219
Computer Skill 221
Background Knowledge 225
The Effects of Strategy Use on Reading Comprehension 227
The Effects of Global Strategies on Comprehension 230
The Effects of Support Strategies on Comprehension 232
The Effects of Socio-Affective Strategy on Comprehension 232
The Effectiveness of English Reading Online 233
Feedback on Strategy Buttons 234
Feedback on Learning Effects 236
Feedback on Text Selection 237
Feedback on Hyperlinks 238
Feedback on Interface Design 239
CHAPTER SIX IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION 240
Answers to Research Questions 240
Pedagogical Implications 245
The Inclusion of Strategy Instruction 245
Strategies for Teaching Online Reading 247
Web-Based Program Design 248
The Importance of Global Strategy Use 249
Computer-Mediated Communication in Reading Classrooms 250
Text Selection 251
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 252
Conclusion 254

REFERENCES 255

Appendix A: Oxford’s Strategies Useful for Reading 271
Appendix B: O’Malley and Chamot’s Definitions on Learning Strategies 273
Appendix C: Description of SORS by Sheorey and Mokhtari 275
Appendix D: Description of SORS by Mokhtari and Reichard 276
Appendix E: Description of OSORS by Anderson 277
Appendix F: Technology Resources 279
Appendix G: A Sample of Permission for Use 280
Appendix H: Piloting Texts (Easy) 281
Appendix I: Piloting Texts (Difficult) 283
Appendix J: Article 1 Under the Topic of Movie 287
Appendix K: Article 2 Under the Topic of History 289
Appendix L: Article 3 Under the Topic of Travel 291
Appendix M: Article 4 Under the Topic of Holiday 294
Appendix N: Post-Task Survey 296
Appendix O: Background Information of Participants 298
Appendix P: Background Questionnaire 299
Appendix Q: Interview Guidelines 301
Appendix R: Coding Schemes of Student Recall Protocols 302
Appendix S: Reflection Guidelines 303
Appendix T: Consent Form 304
Appendix U: Sequence of Click Patterns 305
Appendix V: Sample Written Recall Scoring 306

List of Tables
Table 1: Categories of Comprehension Instruction and Their Effects 23
Table 2: Online Text Selection 78
Table 3: A Summary of Reading Strategy Support Function Design and Its Strategy Categorization 99
Table 4: Strategy Coding Scheme 105
Table 5: Relationships Between Research Questions, Data Collection Methods,
and Data Analysis Procedures 117
Table 6: Participants’ Self-Evaluations of English Proficiency 119
Table 7: Participants’ Computer Skills and Purposes for Using Computers 120
Table 8: Time on Online Reading Tasks 121
Table 9: Participants’ Views on Printed vs. Electronic Text 122
Table 10: Strategies Used by All Students in Reading Four Articles 124
Table 11: Strategies Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Four Articles 126
Table 12: The Use of Strategy Buttons Across Lessons by All Students 130
Table 13: The Total Number of Strategies Used Across Topics 132
Table 14: Strategy Use Across Topics by the High Group 133
Table 15: Strategy Use Across Topics by the Low Group 134
Table 16: The Total Number of Strategies Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Articles Across Topics 135
Table 17: The Total Number of Strategies Used by All Students in Reading Easy and Difficult Texts 136
Table 18: Strategy Use in Reading Easy and Difficult Texts by All Students 137
Table 19: The Total Number of Strategies Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Easy and Difficult Texts 139
Table 20: The Strategy Types Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Articles of Different Difficulty Levels 140
Table 21: Time Spent on Each Strategy Button by All Students 143
Table 22: Time Spent on Each Strategy Button by the High and the Low Groups 145
Table 23: A Partial Record of Strategy Button Usage 146
Table 24: Sequence of Support and Problem-Solving Strategy Use by All Students 147
Table 25: Sequence of Support and Socio-Affective Strategy Use by All Students in Reading Easy and Difficult Texts 147
Table 26: Sequence of Support and Global Strategy Use by the High and the Low Groups 148
Table 27: Total Score for the Scheme in Each Lesson 149
Table 28: Recall Scores of the High and the Low Groups 150
Table 29: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Total Score for All Students Reading Four Articles 153
Table 30: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Total Score for the High Group Reading Four Articles 154
Table 31: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Total Score for the Low Group Reading Four Articles 155
Table 32: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Main Idea Score for All Students Reading Four Articles 157
Table 33: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Main Idea Score for the High Group Reading Four Articles 158
Table 34: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Main Idea Score for the Low Group Reading Four Articles 159
Table 35: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Scores on Details for All Students Reading Four Articles 161
Table 36: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Scores on Details for the High Group Reading Four Articles 162
Table 37: Summary of Regression Coefficients of the Scores on Details for the Low Group Reading Four Articles 163
Table 38: Students’ Feedback on Global Strategy Buttons 165
Table 39: Students’ Feedback on Problem-solving Strategy Buttons 65
Table 40: Students’ Feedback on Support Strategy Buttons 166
Table 41: Students’ Feedback on Socio-Affective Strategy Buttons 166
Table 42: Students’ Feedback on Web-Based Features 167
Table 43: Students’ Feedback on Interface Design and Learning Effects 168
Table 44: Students’ Perceptions of Text Difficulty 169
Table 45: Students’ Perceptions of Text Preference 171
Table 46: Students’ Perceptions of the Most Useful Tool 174
Table 47: Students’ Perceptions of the Least Useful Tool 177
Table 48: Correlation Between Perceived Usefulness and Actual Usage of the Fifteen Strategy Buttons 181
Table 49: Other Strategy Usage by Four Participants 199

List of Figures
Figure 1: Mayer's Generative Model of Multimedia Learning 45
Figure 2: A Sample Page of Keyword 82
Figure 3: A Sample Page of Preview 83
Figure 4: A Sample Page of Prediction 84
Figure 5: A Sample Page of Outline 85
Figure 6: A Sample Page of Summary 86
Figure 7: A Sample Page of Pronunciation 87
Figure 8: A Sample Page of Speed Reading 89
Figure 9: A Sample Page of Semantic Mapping 90
Figure 10: A Sample Page of Dictionary 91
Figure 11: A Sample Page of Grammar 92
Figure 12: A Sample Page of Translation 93
Figure 13: A Sample Page of Highlighting 94
Figure 14: A Sample Page of Notebook 95
Figure 15: A Sample Page of Music Box 97
Figure 16: A Sample Page of Question 98
Figure 17: Strategy Distribution Chart 125
Figure 18: Distribution of Four Types of Strategies Used by the High and the Low Groups 128
Figure 19: The Percentages of Individual Strategy Button Usage of the High and the Low Groups 129
Figure 20: Strategy Use in Reading Easy and Difficult Texts by All Students 138
Figure 21: Strategy Types Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Easy Texts 141
Figure 22: Strategy Types Used by the High and the Low Groups in Reading Difficult Texts 142
Figure 23: A Sample Semantic Map Completed by A High Group Student 175
Figure 24: A Model of Online Reading Strategies 205
Figure 25: All Students’ Online Reading Strategy Use and Levels of Comprehension 229
Figure 26: High and Low Groups’ Online Reading Strategy Use and Levels of Comprehension 229
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