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研究生:劉美侖
研究生(外文):Mei-Lun Liu
論文名稱:餐廳內擁擠程度對消費者知覺價值與消費意願之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of restaurant crowding on consumers' perceived value and purchase intention
指導教授:孫瑜華孫瑜華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Hua Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:人類發展與家庭學系
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:社會密度知覺人擁擠知覺控制知覺價值消費意願
外文關鍵詞:social densityperceived human crowdingperceived controlperceived valuepurchase intention
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隨著台灣餐飲業的興起,愈來愈多業者加入這個市場,也造成餐飲業市場競爭激烈。傳統的經營模式已無法滿足消費者的需求,價格不再決定一切,消費者更注重的是餐廳內的環境、員工的服務、品牌的體驗、產品的創意等。而擁擠亦屬於餐廳內環境的一部分,故本研究主目的為探討餐廳內擁擠程度對消費者消費意願所產生的影響。
本研究根據文獻建立一套理論模式,其中選擇、社會密度與時間限制為自變項;知覺人擁擠、知覺控制與知覺價值為中介變項,以及擁擠容忍度為知覺人擁擠與知覺價值間的調節變項;消費意願為最後主要測量的應變項。研究方法採用角色扮演情境法與3×2×2因子設計的實驗研究法,研究樣本為493位國立師範大學的大學生,所蒐集來的資料利用SPSS 12.0與AMOS 6.0套裝軟體進行各項分析。本研究分析結果如下:
一、選擇與知覺控制會正向影響知覺人擁擠。
二、社會密度會負向影響知覺人擁擠。
三、社會密度與時間限制會負向影響知覺控制。
四、知覺人擁擠與知覺控制會正向影響知覺價值。
五、知覺人擁擠、知覺控制與知覺價值均會正向影響消費意願。
此外未如預期的結果尚有,選擇對知覺控制及時間限制對知覺人擁擠的正向影響均未達顯著;擁擠容忍度不能調節知覺人擁擠對知覺價值的影響。本研究具有許多的研究意涵,故可讓餐廳的經營者在設計行銷方案時,研擬出有效影響消費者消費意願的方案。
As the hospitality industry raises in Taiwan, there are more and more business entities entering into this market, and the competition gets more intense at the same time. The traditional mode of merchandising has not been able to satisfy customers. The lower prices of products do not reflect the higher sales anymore. What customers emphasize now are the environment of the restaurant, the service of employees, the experience of brands, the originality of products, etc. And crowding is one of them in the environment of restaurants. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the level of crowding affects customers' purchase intention.
The model established in this study is based on past researches. Independent variables of this study include choice, social density, and time limit. Intervening variables contain perceived human crowding , perceived control, and perceived value. Tolerance for crowding is the moderating variable of perceived human crowding and perceived value. Finally, purchase intention would be measured primarily as the dependent variable. Research method adopted role-playing scenario technique and a 3×2×2 factorial design of laboratory experience. 493 student subjects from National Taiwan Normal University. The data were then analyzed through SPSS 12.0 and AMOS 6.0. The results are as follows: choice and perceived control positively affect perceived human crowding; social density negatively affects perceived human crowding; social density and time limit negatively affect perceived control; perceived human crowding and perceived control positively affect perceived value. perceived human crowding, perceived control and perceived value positively affect purchase intention. The unexpected findings obtained in this study are the positive effect of choice to perceived control and time limit to perceived human crowding were not significant. And the effect of perceived human crowding to perceived value can’t be moderated by personal tolerance for crowding. This research has many implications for marketing. It can help the restaurant mangers develop more effective marketing programs to affect consumers’ purchase intention.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 ..............................................1
第一節 研究背景 .........................................1
第二節 研究動機與目的 ....................................3
第三節 名詞界定 .........................................5
第二章 文獻探討 ...........................................6
第一節 影響消費者購買行為的環境因素 ........................6
第二節 擁擠的概念探討 ...................................11
第三節 影響知覺擁擠之因素 ................................14
第四節 知覺擁擠、知覺價值與消費意願之關係 ..................20
第三章 研究方法 ...........................................26
第一節 研究架構 .........................................26
第二節 研究假設 .........................................27
第三節 研究設計 .........................................31
第四節 資料分析方法 .....................................40
第五節 預試 ............................................46
第四章 資料分析與研究結果 ..................................58
第一節 敘述性統計分析 ...................................58
第二節 虛擬情境操弄檢驗分析...............................60
第三節 問卷之信效度分析 ..................................63
第四節 假設驗證結果 .....................................79
第五節 結構方程模式分析 ..................................89
第五章 討論與建議 ........................................102
第一節 結論與討論 ......................................102
第二節 研究意涵與建議 ..................................107
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 ...........................110
參考文獻 ................................................112
附錄一 研究問卷 .........................................126
附錄二 Enlight software公司授權證明 ......................135
附錄三 各變項之相關係數矩陣 ...............................136

圖 目 錄
圖 2-1-1 服務業中環境與人之間關係的架構圖 ......................8
圖 2-2-2 零售店的擁擠模式 ...................................13
圖 2-4-1 消費者知覺價格、品質與價值之關係模式 .................20
圖 2-4-2 價格、知覺價值與購買意願之概念模式 ...................24
圖 2-4-3 餐廳消費者的知覺擁擠、知覺價值與消費意願之關係 ........25
圖 3-1-1 本研究理論架構圖 ..................................26
圖 3-2-1 本研究假設架構圖...................................27
圖 3-4-1 本研究假設模式之結構關係圖 .........................43
圖 4-3-1 知覺控制測量模式路徑圖 .............................69
圖 4-3-2 知覺人擁擠測量模式路徑圖 ............................70
圖 4-3-3 修正後知覺人擁擠測量模式路徑圖 ......................70
圖 4-3-4 知覺價值測量模式路徑圖 .............................71
圖 4-3-5 消費意願測量模式路徑圖 .............................72
圖 4-3-6 擁擠容忍度測量模式路徑圖 ............................73
圖 4-3-7 整體測量模式路徑圖 .................................75
圖 4-4-1 選擇與時間限制對知覺人擁擠之交互作用 .................85
圖 4-5-1 本研究初始整體模式之路徑圖 ..........................89
圖 4-5-2 初始整體模式之標準化估計值 ..........................92
圖 4-5-3 修正後整體模式之標準化估計值 ........................94
圖 4-5-4 本研究假設模式之參數估計 ...........................96
圖 4-5-5 本研究修正後之理論模式 .............................97

表 目 錄
表 3-3-1 本研究實驗因子設計 .................................31
表 3-3-2 知覺控制量表之問卷問項 .............................36
表 3-3-3 知覺人擁擠量表之問卷問項 ............................37
表 3-3-4 知覺價值量表之問卷問項 .............................37
表 3-3-5 消費意願量表之問卷問項 .............................38
表 3-3-6 擁擠容忍度量表之問卷問項 ...........................38
表 3-5-1 第一次預試之信度分析結 .............................48
表 3-5-2 虛擬情境的真實性與想像性敘述統計表 ...................50
表 3-5-3 餐廳可否選擇之t考驗摘要表 ...........................50
表 3-5-4 用餐時間有無受到限制之t考驗摘要表 ....................51
表 3-5-5 餐廳內社會密度之ANOVA摘要表 ........................51
表 3-5-6 第二次預試問卷修改項目 .............................52
表 3-5-7 第二次預試之信度分析結果 ............................54
表 3-5-8 虛擬情境的真實性與想像性敘述統計表 ...................56
表 3-5-9 餐廳可否選擇之t考驗摘要表 ...........................56
表 3-5-10用餐時間有無受到限制之t考驗摘要表 ...................57
表 3-5-11餐廳內社會密度之ANOVA摘要表 ........................57
表 4-1-1 個人基本資料次數分配表 .............................59
表 4-2-1 各組受試者間性別與年齡之人數分配表 ...................60
表 4-2-2 各組受試者間性別與年齡之χ2考驗摘要表 .................61
表 4-2-3 虛擬情境的真實性與想像性敘述統計表 ...................61
表 4-2-4 餐廳內社會密度之ANOVA摘要表 ........................62
表 4-3-1 知覺控制因素分析表 .................................64
表 4-3-2 知覺人擁擠因素分析表 ...............................64
表 4-3-3 知覺價值因素分析表 .................................64
表 4-3-4 消費意願因素分析表 .................................65
表 4-3-5 擁擠容忍度因素分析表 ...............................65
表 4-3-6 各量表之信度分析 ...................................66
表 4-3-7 觀察變項之偏態與峰度統計表 ..........................68
表 4-3-8 知覺控制測量模式之參數估計表 ........................69
表 4-3-9 刪題後知覺人擁擠測量模式之參數估計表 .................70
表 4-3-10知覺價值測量模式之參數估計表 ........................71
表 4-3-11消費意願測量模式之參數估計表 ........................72
表 4-3-12擁擠容忍度測量模式之參數估計表 ......................73
表 4-3-13本研究量表驗證性因素分析適配的檢定結果 ...............74
表 4-3-14所有量表之參數估計表 ...............................76
表 4-3-15各量表之組合信度與平均變異抽取量 ....................77
表 4-3-16各構面間相關與區別效度 .............................78
表 4-3-17各構面間相關、相關平方與平均變異抽取量 ...............78
表 4-4-1 操弄變項對知覺控制及知覺人擁擠之平均數 ...............80
表 4-4-2 操弄變項對知覺控制及知覺人擁擠之多變量變異數分析摘要表..80
表 4-4-3 操弄變項對知覺控制及知覺人擁擠之單變量變異數分析摘要表..80
表 4-4-4 社會密度對知覺人擁擠之LSD事後比較 ...................82
表 4-4-5 社會密度對知覺控制之LSD事後比較 .....................82
表 4-4-6 可否選擇下之知覺控制平均數摘要表 .....................83
表 4-4-7 有無時間限制下之知覺人擁擠平均數摘要表 ...............83
表 4-4-8 有無時間限制下之知覺控制平均數摘要表 .................83
表 4-4-9 可否選擇下之知覺控制平均數摘要表 ....................84
表 4-4-10有無時間限制及可否選擇下之擁擠人知覺平均數摘要表 ......85
表 4-4-11當有時間限制時,可否選擇對知覺人擁擠之ANOVA分析 ......86
表 4-4-12當無時間限制時,可否選擇對知覺人擁擠之ANOVA分析 ......86
表 4-4-13當不可選擇時,有無時間限制對知覺人擁擠之ANOVA分析.....86
表 4-4-14當可選擇時,有無時間限制對知覺人擁擠之ANOVA分析.......87
表 4-4-15知覺人擁擠與擁擠容忍度對知覺價值之二因子變異數分析.....88
表 4-5-1 整體模式各問項名稱對照表 ............................90
表 4-5-2 各變項間的參數估計結果 .............................91
表 4-5-3 修正後各變項間的參數估計結果 ........................93
表 4-5-4 初始與修正後整體模式之適配度檢定結果 ............... .94
表 4-5-5 假設路徑之估計參數結果 .............................96
表 4-5-6 研究假設檢定總表 ..................................97
表 4-5-7 各變項標準化間接及整體效果表 .......................101
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