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研究生:李雅婷
研究生(外文):Ya-Ting Li
論文名稱:國小學童的性別及社交地位與歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力以及友誼品質之關係
論文名稱(外文):Interpersonal Attribution, Interpersonal Belief, Facial Expression Recognition and Friendship Quality as Related to Gender and Sociometric Status among Elementary School Students
指導教授:張文哲張文哲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:159
中文關鍵詞:社交地位人際事件歸因人際信念表情辨識能力友誼品質國小學童
外文關鍵詞:sociometric statusinterpersonal event attributioninterpersonal beliefexpression recognition abilityfriendship qualityelementary school students
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本研究旨在探討國小四年級學童中,不同性別及不同社交地位者,其在人際事件上的歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力以及友誼品質上的差異情形,並進一步了解學童的歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力以及友誼品質是否能區別其社交地位。本研究以台北市幸安國民小學四年級學童為研究對象,共計316人(男生151人、女生165人),使用的研究工具包括「國小學童社交測量」、「國小學童人際歸因量表」、「國小學童人際信念量表」以及「國小學童友誼品質量表」;其中有135人(男生68人、女生67人)繼續參與「表情辨識實驗」。研究所得資料以雙因子(單變量)變異數分析、雙因子多變量變異數分析、單因子(單變量)變異數分析以及區別分析等統計方法處理。研究結果發現:(一)不同性別的學童在歸因方式上具有顯著差異;(二)不同性別的學童在人際信念上不具有顯著差異;(三)不同性別的學童在表情辨識能力上具有顯著差異;(四)不同性別的學童在友誼品質上具有顯著差異;(五)不同社交地位的學童在歸因方式上具有顯著差異;(六)不同社交地位的學童在人際信念上不具有顯著差異;(七)不同社交地位的學童在表情辨識能力上具有顯著差異;(八)不同社交地位的學童在友誼品質上具有顯著差異;(九)歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力以及友誼品質可有效區別出國小學童的四種社交地位,達到預測效果。最後,研究者依據研究結果對教育及未來研究提出具體建議。
The main purpose of this study was to explore whether the students of different gender and different sociometric status were different in their interpersonal event attribution, interpersonal belief, facial expression recognition ability and friendship quality. A further purpose was to investigate whether or not these four variables could effectively discriminate their sociometric status. The participants were 316 fourth-grade students (151 boys and 165 girls) from an elementary school in Taipei. The variables of interest were measured by the Sociometric Scale, Interpersonal Attribution Scale, Interpersonal Belief Scale, and Friendship Quality Scale. There were 135 fourth-grade students (68 boys and 67 girls) participating in the facial expression recognition experiment using the SuperLab software. The obtained data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, two-way MANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and discriminant analysis. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significant gender differences in interpersonal attribution, facial expression recognition ability and friendship quality. But no gender differences were found in interpersonal belief. Second, the students with different sociometric status were different in interpersonal attribution, facial expression recognition and friendship quality, but not in their interpersonal belief. Third, these four variables of interpersonal attribution, interpersonal belief, facial expression recognition and friendship could discriminate elementary school students’ sociometric status. The findings were discussed and suggestions for education and future research were also proposed.
中文摘要
英文摘要

第一章 緒論

第一節 研究動機與目的 …………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究問題 …………………………………………………… 8
第三節 研究假設 …………………………………………………… 9
第四節 名詞釋義 …………………………………………………… 11

第二章 文獻探討

第一節 社交地位 …………………………………………………… 15
第二節 歸因 ………………………………………………………… 24
第三節 人際信念 …………………………………………………… 29
第四節 表情辨識能力 ……………………………………………… 32
第五節 友誼品質 …………………………………………………… 37

第三章 研究方法

第一節 研究對象 …………………………………………………… 41
第二節 研究工具 …………………………………………………… 45
第三節 資料處理方式 …………………………………………… 63

第四章 研究結果

第一節 國小學童的社交地位分布狀況 ………………………… 65
第二節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在歸因方式上之差異分析… 67
第三節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在人際信念上之差異分析 … 71
第四節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在表情辨識能力上之差異分析 ... 73
第五節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在友誼品質上之差異分析 …… 80
第六節 歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力與友誼品質對國小學童社交地位區別力考驗 …………………………………………………… 83

第五章 討論

第一節 國小學童的社交地位分布狀況之討論 ……………………… 91
第二節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在歸因方式上差異之討論… 93
第三節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在人際信念上差異之討論 … 97
第四節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在表情辨識能力上差異之討論 .. 100
第五節 不同性別與社交地位的國小學童在友誼品質上差異之討論 … 104
第六節 歸因方式、人際信念、表情辨識能力與友誼品質對國小學童社交地
位區分情形之討論 ………………………………………… 107

第六章 結論與建議

第一節 結論 ………………………………………………………… 109
第二節 研究限制與貢獻 …………………………………………… 113
第三節 建議 ………………………………………………………… 115

參考文獻

一、 中文部分 ……………………………………………………… 117
二、 英文部分 ……………………………………………………… 120

附錄

附錄一 「班級劇場問卷」修訂同意書 …………………………… 130
附錄二 「友誼品質量表」修訂同意書 …………………………… 131
附錄三 「國小學童人際量表」預試問卷 ………………………… 132
附錄四 「國小學童人際量表」正式問卷 ………………………… 141
附錄五 SuperLab表情材料檢核問卷 …………………………… 148
附錄六 SuperLab正式表情材料 ………………………………… 158
一、 中文部分

石培欣(民88)。國民中學學生家庭環境、同儕關係與學業成就之相關研究。國立高雄師範大學教育學系研究所碩士論文。
林世欣(民89)。國中學生自我概念與同儕關係相關研究。屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
林純真(民90)。安置於社區家園之成年智障者友伴關係之研究。國立臺灣師範大學特殊教育研究所博士論文。
林清山(民65)。典型相關分析的理論與統計法簡介。測驗年刊,23,頁8-19。
林瑞昌(民86)。兒童友誼概念發展、友伴選擇與友誼滿意度之相關研究。國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
林慧姿(民93)。國小六年級學童自尊、情緒調節與友誼之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
邱美華(民85)。青少年同儕關係(上)。父母親月刊,137,頁33-40。
周庭芳(民90)。保護處分少年友伴選擇、友誼品質與交友網路之分析研究。國立高雄師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
施玉鵬(民91)。出生序、父母管教方式對國小高年級學生自我概念、同儕關係、社會興趣之關係研究。台南師範學院教師在職進修輔導教學碩士班。
洪榮照(民87)。兒童攻擊行為相關因素與認知行為策略輔導效果之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所博士論文。
洪儷瑜、涂春仁(民85)。Coie & Dodge社會計量地位分類公式之修正。測驗年刊,43,頁103-114。
高民凱(民90)。中學生解釋風格量表之編製及其效度研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導與諮商學系碩士論文。
徐佩君(民89)。父母管教方式、解釋風格、負向家庭生活經驗與兒童解釋風格之相關研究。國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
涂春仁(民88)。視窗版社交測量簡介。臺北市,永吉國中。
陳坤虎(民90)。青少年自我認同與父母管教態度及自尊之關係。國立台灣大學心理學系研究所碩士論文。
陳若男(民81)。兒童手足關係與友誼關係之研究。國立台灣師範大學家政教育研究所碩士論文。
陳玲玲(民80)。兒童友伴選擇、友誼概念與友誼知覺之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
陳柔蓁(民94)。北台灣地區國小兒童依附關係、自我效能、害羞與人際關係之相關研究。台北市立師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
陳蕙君、翁繩玉(民85)。民生國小資優生與普通生人際關係比較研究。資優教育季刊,59,31-35。
許惠淳(民87)。缺損型與非缺損型精神分裂患者對臉部情緒的辨識。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
黃世琤、陳慧芳(民92)。助人者類型與幫助行為對初小學童社會互動之影響,尚未發表之碩士論文。
曾秋芳(民90)。學習障礙學生非語文溝通情緒辨識能力之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系碩士論文。
張春興(民78)。 張氏心理學辭典。 台北市:東華。
張家群(民92)。社交地位與情緒情境對初小兒童表情辨識能力之影響。國立中正大學心理研究所碩士論文。
張黛眉(民79)。影響小學學童攻擊行為以致社交地位之認知相關變項。國立台灣大學心理研究所碩士論文。
黃德祥(民80)。社會計量地位分類之研究。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,38,頁53-69。劉奕樺(民85)。父母管教、社會行為、同儕喜愛與被拒絕男生之關係研究。    
 國立花蓮師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。
蔡芬芳(民86)。自尊對自利歸因的影響:自我概念內容結構的交互作用。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
蔡淑苓(民87)。幼兒同儕互動之研究-以一個幼稚園大班為例。台南女子技術學院學報,17,169-189。
蔡麗芳(民81)。社交技巧訓練策略對國小兒童社交技巧、問題行為及同儕接納之影響效果實驗研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
戴淑梅(民94)。國中生的性別、同儕關係、人際壓力因應策略與生活適應之關係。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。

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