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研究生:籃玉如
研究生(外文):Yu-Ju Lan
論文名稱:以行動科技支援之合作學習培養EFL學習者早期英語閱讀能力
論文名稱(外文):Fostering Early EFL Reading Abilities Through Mobile-Device-Supported Collaborative Learning
指導教授:張國恩張國恩引用關係宋曜廷宋曜廷引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo-En ChangYao-Ting Sung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:資訊教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:178
中文關鍵詞:行動學習合作學習早期英語閱讀
外文關鍵詞:mobile learningcollaborative learningearly EFL reading
相關次數:
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本研究旨在探討行動科技對EFL學習者早期閱讀的影響。本研究進行了三個實驗來研究這個課題:(1)試驗性研究,主要是確定應用行動科技於早期EFL閱讀學習活動的恰當時機與策略;(2)實驗一,根據試驗性研究的結果,提出以行動載具支援同儕互助學習的早期EFL閱讀模式,目的是解決存在於傳統合作學習小組的問題;以及(3)實驗二,旨在利用行動科技提升學生對自我學習責任的認知與強化小組合作學習的成效。研究結果顯示恰當使用行動科技不僅可以解決合作學習小組原有的問題,也有助於EFL學生基礎英語閱讀能力的培養。此外,行動載具支援的責任分派機制能有效提升EFL學生對自我學習責任的認知,進而促使他們表現出更積極、負責與合作的行為,因而在基礎英語閱讀能力上獲得顯著或是較好的進步。同時,本研究對使用行動載具支援EFL的合作閱讀活動的時機與方法提出具體有效的建議,有助於後續的研究發展。
The purposes of this thesis were to explore the impact of mobile technology on elementary EFL reading. Three studies were conducted to investigate this issue: (a) Pilot study, aimed at identifying the opportune moment and approaches to apply mobile technology to elementary EFL reading teaching and learning; (b) based on the results of the pilot study, in Experiment I, a mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning model (MDPAL) was proposed to deal with the weaknesses in a traditionally collaborative learning group; and (c) Experiment II focused on promoting the awareness of elementary EFL learners’ learning responsibility and strengthening the collaborative effect in a learning group. The results of these studies show that the use of mobile devices effectively reduced the identified weaknesses found in the traditional collaborative learning activities. The use of mobile technology in collaborative reading activities benefited elementary EFL learners’ low level linguistic skills development. Besides, the mobile-device-supported responsibility distribution mechanism effectively promoted elementary EFL learners’ awareness of their responsibility to their own learning led to their active, responsible, collaborative learning behaviors, and consequently triggered better or significant progress in early linguistic skills. The analyses have identified effective ways of using mobile devices to support collaborative EFL reading activities.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGUERS xiii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem 5
1.2 Statement of the Purpose 6
1.3 Research Questions 8
1.4 Significance of the Study 9
1.5 Definitions 10
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 15
2.1 Reading comprehension process 16
2.2 Early reading instruction program 19
2.3 Scaffolding 20
2.4 Cooperative learning 23
2.5 Computer technology for early reading instruction 25
2.6 Mobile leaning 28
CHAPTER 3 Pilot Study: Collaborative Learning in Heterogeneous EFL Early Reading Groups 30
3.1 Subjects 30
3.2 Instruments 31
3.2.1 Teaching materials 31
3.2.2 In-class observation checklist 32
3.3 Design 34
3.4 Procedure 35
3.5 Results 36
3.6 Discussion and conclusion 41
CHAPTER 4 Experiment I: The Mobile-Device-Supported Peer-Assisted Learning Model (MDPAL) 44.
4.1 Subjects 44
4.2 Instruments 45
4.2.1 Teaching materials 45
4.2.2 DIBELSTM 45
4.2.3 In-class observation checklist 47
4.2.4 Hardware 48.
4.3 MDPAL system 48
4.4 Design 52
4.5 Procedure 55
4.6 Results 56
4.6.1 The measure results of early English reading skills 57
4.6.2 The results of the in-class observation 60
4.7 Discussion and conclusion 64
CHAPTER 5 Experiment II: The Computer Assisted Reciprocal Early English Reading System (CAREER) 66
5.1 Subjects 67
5.2 Measure instruments 68.
5.2.1 Teaching materials 68
5.2.2 DIBELSTM 69
5.2.3 In-class observation checklist 70
5.2.4 Hardware 71
5.3 CAREER system 71
5.3.1 Sight word module 73
5.3.2 Phonetic word module 73
5.3.3 Peer assessment module 74
5.4 Design 81
5.5 Procedure 82
5.6 Results 85
5.6.1 The measure results of early English reading skills 86
5.6.2 The results of the in-class observation 93
5.7 Discussion and conclusion 97
CHAPTER 6 General Discussion 100
CHAPTER 7 Conclusion and Future Work 108
7.1 Conclusion 108
7.2 Future work 110
APPENDIX A: Reading Materials Used in Pilot Study 112
APPENDIX B: In-Class Observation Checklist Used in Pilot Study 117
APPENDIX C: Collaborative Reading Rules 119
APPENDIX D: Step-By-Step Reading Guide 120
APPENDIX E: Group-Process Rating Scale 121
APPENDIX F: Discourse Examples in Collaborative Reading Groups 122
APPENDIX G: Reading Materials Used in Experiment I 126
APPENDIX H: The Measurement Instruments for Basic Early Linguistic Skills for Experiment I 141
APPENDIX I: In-Class Observation Checklist Used in Experiment I 143
APPENDIX J: The Specification of TravelMate C110 Convertible Tablet PC 144
APPENDIX K: Reading Materials Used in Experiment II 145
APPENDIX L: The Measurement Instruments for Basic Early Linguistic Skills for Experiment II 164
APPENDIX M: In-Class Observation Checklist Used in Experiment II 166
REFERENCES 168
LIST OF TABLES
1. Definition of Pattern I in GRB 33
2. Definition of Patterns P and G in GRB 33
3. Definitions of Discourse Types in Small Group Reading Activities 34
4. The Whole Class Average of GRB Patterns of the Five Teaching Packages 37
5. The Intra-Group Interactive Models of Each Reading Group in the Five Teaching Packages 40
6. The Means and Standard Deviations for the Scores of the Early Linguistic Ability in PSF 57
7. A Two Way Analysis of Covariance Testing the Effect of MDPAL on Students’ Early Linguistic Ability in PSF 58
8. The Means and Standard Deviations for the Scores of the Early Linguistic Ability in NWF (Experiment I ) 59
9. A Two Way Analysis of Covariance Testing the Effect of MDPAL on Students’ Early Linguistic Ability in NWF (Experiment I) 60
10. The Frequencies of the Four Target Behaviors and the Chi-Square Analysis Results 61
11. The Frequency of Each Category of Behaviors 62
12. The Means and Standard Deviations for the Scores of the Early Linguistic Ability in NWF (Experiment II) 87
13. A Two Way Analysis of Covariance Testing the Effect of CAREER on Students’ Early Linguistic Ability in NWF (Experiment II) 88
14. The Means and Standard Deviations for the Scores of the Early Linguistic Ability in ORF 89
15. A Two Way Analysis of Covariance Testing the Effect of CAREER on Students’ Early Linguistic Ability in ORF 90
16. The Means and Standard Deviations for the Scores of the Early Linguistic Ability in RTF 91.
17. A Two Way Analysis of Covariance Testing the Effect of CAREER on Students’ Early Linguistic Ability in RTF 92
18. The Simple Main Effect Analysis in RTF 92
19. The Reading Behaviors of Elementary EFL Students and Chi-square Analysis Results 95
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Mutual interactive cognitive processing model of EFL early reading 17
2. The whole class average of GRB patterns 38
3. The learning flow in the MDPAL system 48
4. An example of the phonological skill training in MDPAL: sight word learning activities 51
5. An example of the phonological skill training in MDPAL: phonetic word learning activities 51
6. An example of text reading activities with online supports 52
7. Mixed methods research process model 54
8. The frequencies of each behavior category happened in each observed turn: (a) experimental group, (b) control group 64
9. The modules of CAREER system 73
10. An example of the phonological skill training in CAREER: sight word learning activities 75
11. An example of the phonological skill training in CAREER: phonetic word learning activities 75
12. An example of paragraph reading activities 76
13. An example of story map activities 76
14. An example of peer-assisted assessment 77
15. The workflow in CAREER system 78
16. The teaching strategies and the corresponding activities of sight word instruction 79
17. The teaching strategies and the corresponding activities of phonetic word instruction 80
18. The teaching strategies and the corresponding activities of text reading and peer assessment 81
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