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研究生:蔡宏益  
研究生(外文):Hung-Yi Tsai
論文名稱:飼料中添加不同油脂的來源與量對紫海膽成長的影響及添加不同的誘引物對紫海膽的誘引效果
論文名稱(外文):The effects of dietary lipid sources and levels on the growth and attraction of different attractants of purple sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassipina.
指導教授:沈士新 
指導教授(外文):Shyn-Shin Sheen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:脂肪酸紫海膽黏著劑誘引物
外文關鍵詞:fatty acidspurple sea urchinbindersattractants
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摘要

本研究之目的在探討飼料中添加不同油脂的量與質對紫海膽之成長、生殖腺及殼組織成分和脂肪酸組成的影響,以及飼料中添加不同黏著劑對紫海膽成長的影響與飼料中添加不同誘引劑對紫海膽之誘引效果。
實驗一飼料以脫脂的大豆粉及米糠為主要蛋白質來源,配製成等蛋白和等能量的七組飼料,飼料分別添加5%的魚油、胡麻油、亞麻油、玉米油、橄欖油、大豆油及牛油,對照組餵食龍鬚菜。經過90天的實驗,紫海膽餵食添加5%的魚油有顯著高的生殖腺指數(10.00%),飼料中的18:2n-6、18:3n-3、n-3 HUFA及20:4n-6對紫海膽的體成長有促進的效果。
實驗二飼料以精製大豆蛋白為主要蛋白質來源,配製成等蛋白和等能量的六組飼料,魚油為油脂來源,分別添加0%、2%、4%、6%、8%及10%的油脂,對照組餵食龍鬚菜。實驗結果以添加4%魚油飼料(26.57%)處理組的增重率最高。紫海膽餵食添加8%的魚油有顯著高的生殖腺指數(12.38%)。對紫海膽成長而言油脂的最適需求量在4%〜8%之間,而對紫海膽生殖腺增重而言油脂的最適需求量在2%以上。
實驗三飼料是以大豆粉、魚粉及米糠為主要蛋白質來源,魚油為油脂來源,添加5%的油脂,與分別添加20%的動物膠(gelatin)、藻膠酸鈉(sodium alginate)、洋菜膠(agar)和鹿角叉菜膠(carrageenan)作為黏著劑,配製成等蛋白和等能量的四組飼料,對照組餵食龍鬚菜。實驗結果添加洋菜膠飼料處理有最佳的水中安定性。紫海膽餵食添加藻膠酸鈉處理組有顯著高的生殖腺指數(7.35%)和增重率(38.15%)。
實驗四飼料是以精製大豆蛋白為主要蛋白質來源,魚油為油脂來源,添加5%的油脂,藻膠酸納為黏著劑,與分別添加0.5%的大蒜(garlic)、黑胡椒(pepper)、甜菜鹼(betaine)、松油醇(α-terpineol)及芳樟醇(linalool),配製成等蛋白和等能量的五組飼料,對照組餵食龍鬚菜。實驗結果添加芳樟醇飼料處理組有最佳的誘引效果。
Abstract

This study investigated the effects of dietary lipid levels and sources on the growth and gonad weight of sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassipina and different dietary attractants and binders for Anthocidaris crassipina.
The effects of seven lipid sources, fish oil、sesame oil、linseed oil、corn oil、olive oil、soybean oil and beef tallow, on the growth and fatty acid composition of gonadal and shell tissues were investigated in experiment Ⅰ. All diets were formulated to contain a total of 5.0% lipid. Gracilaria sp. was used as a control diet. After feeding trails of 90 days duration, sea urchin fed diet containing fish oil had significantly higher GI than those fed the other treatment diets. The high levels of 18:2n-6、18:3n-3、n-3 HUFA and 20:4n-6 in the diet can increase somatic growth of sea urchin.
Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing 0、2、4、6、8 and 10% fish oil were used in experimentⅡ. Gracilaria sp. was used as a control diet. After feeding trails of 90 days duration, sea urchin fed diet containing 4% lipid had significantly higher weight gain than those fed the other diets. Sea urchin fed diet containing 8% lipid had significantly higher gonadal index than other treatments. The optimum dietary lipid for maximum somatic growth of sea urchin ranged from 4 to 8% and optimum dietary lipid for maximum gonadal growth was above 2%.
In experimentⅢ, soybean meal、fish meal and rice bran were used as dietary protein sources and fish oil was used as a dietary lipid. All diets were formulated to containe a total of 5.0% lipid. The 20% binders of semi-purified diets for sea urchin were gelatin、sodium alginate、agar and carrageenan, respectively. Gracilaria sp. was used as a control diet. After feeding trails of 90 days duration, sea urchin fed diet containing sodium alginate had significantly higher weight gain and gonadal index than those fed other diets. After seventy two hours of water stability test, diet containing agar had the highest water stability (79.77%).
In experimentⅣ, isolated soybean protein was used as a dietary protein and sodium alginate was used as a dietary binder. All diets were formulated to containe a total of 5.0% lipid. The semi-purified diets were included 0.5% garlic、pepper、betaine、α-terpineol and linalool, respectively. Gracilaria sp. was used as a control diet. The diet containing 0.5% linalool had the best attraction.
目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………...Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………..….Ⅲ
表目錄………………………………………………………….……..Ⅶ
前言……………………………………………………………………1
文獻整理………………………………………………………………6
Ⅰ.紫海膽的分類…………………………………………………...6
Ⅱ.紫海膽的生態習性……………………………………………...6
Ⅲ.海膽養殖………………………………………………………...7
Ⅳ.脂質……………………………………………………………...8
Ⅴ.脂肪酸…………………………………………………………...10
Ⅵ. 飼料黏著劑…………………………………………………….11
Ⅶ.誘引劑………………………………………………………….. 13
材料方法……………………………………………………………....15
Ⅰ.實驗系統………………………………………………………...15
Ⅱ.實驗動物………………………………………………………...15
Ⅲ.實驗條件………………………………………………………...15
Ⅳ.實驗飼料製作...............................................................................16
Ⅴ.分析項目………………………………………………………...17
一、一般成分分析…………………………………………....17
1、水分及灰份……………………………………......18
2、粗蛋白……………………………………………..18
3、粗脂肪……………………………………………..18
4、粗纖維………………………………………..……18
5、能量……………………………………………..…18
二、脂肪酸組成的測定及鑑定……………………………....18
三、飼料水中安定性測定……………………………………19
四、生殖腺指數測定……………………………………...….20
五、統計分析………………………………………………....20
結果………………………………………………………………....…21
實驗一……………………………………………………………....21
實驗二……………………………………………………………....29
實驗三………………………………………………………………37
實驗四…………………………………………………………...… 39
討論………………………………………………………………...… 40
實驗一……………………………………………………………....40
實驗二………………………………………………………………49
實驗三………………………………………………………………55
實驗四………………………………………………………………60
結論…………………………………………………………………....61
參考文獻………………………………………………………………62
圖表………………………………………………………………...….92
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