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研究生:趙盈鈞
研究生(外文):Ying-Chiun Chao
論文名稱:鹼性電解水對STZ所誘發之第二型糖尿病大白鼠醣類代謝、脂質代謝之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of reduced water on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats
指導教授:江孟燦江孟燦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng-Tsan Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:鹼性電解水糖尿病抗氧化血糖腸道生理血脂
外文關鍵詞:reduced waterdiabetesantioxidantblood glucosecolon physiologylipid
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
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摘要

本研究目的在於探討鹼性電解水對正常及糖尿病大白鼠醣代謝及脂質代謝的影響。以雄性Wistar大白鼠為實驗動物,利用皮下注射Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg) 以及STZ (65 mg/kg) 的方式誘發大白鼠糖代謝異常。將大白鼠分為四組,分別為: (1) 正常大白鼠組; (2) 正常大白鼠鹼性電解水組; (3) 糖尿病大白鼠組; (4) 糖尿病大白鼠鹼性電解水組。實驗共進行六週,飼養期間採自由飲水、攝食。實驗結果顯示飲用鹼性電解水六週後會明顯下降正常組大白鼠禁食血漿葡萄糖、三酸甘油酯、膽固醇、胰島素、瘦體素濃度及TBARS值,但血漿GOT濃度卻有明顯升高。另外,肝臟hexokinase及小腸sucrase活性明顯下降。雖然糞便pH值沒有明顯差異,但飲用鹼性電解水會造成正常組大白鼠糞便細菌酵素mucinase明顯上升。在肝臟抗氧化狀態方面,飲用鹼性電解水的正常組大白鼠glutathione peroxidase、glutathione reductase及 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase活性明顯增加,但glutathione含量明顯減少。而在肝臟TBARS及UCP2蛋白表現量上則沒有明顯差異。飲用鹼性電解水的正常組大白鼠每100克體重的腎重較重,但卻有較低的血漿 creatinine 濃度。另一方面,飲用鹼性電解水的糖尿病組大白鼠,血漿葡萄糖濃度及血糖面積明顯減少。肝臟glucose-6-posphatase及小腸後段雙醣酶活性皆有明顯降低。肝臟抗氧化物質GSH含量則有明顯增加。綜合上述結果顯示,鹼性電解水可能會調節糖尿病大白鼠醣類代謝。
Abstract

Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a contributory factor in development and complication of diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of reduced water (RW), a cathodic solution produced by the electrolysis of tap water, on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) rats drink water; (2) rats drink RW; (3) diabetic rats drink water; (4) diabetic rats drink RW. All groups fed with high fat diet and water ad libitum. This experiment was done for 6 weeks. In normal rats groups, rats drank RW had a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, insulin, leptin concentrations and TBARS value and a significant increase in plasma GOT level. The ability of RW to decrease the blood glucose may be correlated with an increase in hepatic hexokinase activity and lower both proximal and distal region intestinal sucrase specific activities. Although no significant difference in fecal pH value was observed, RW induced an elevated fecal mucinase activity in normal rats. In addition, drinking RW caused a significant increase in the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and a significant decrease in glutathione concentration in liver of normal rats, but there were no significant differences in hepatic TBARS value and uncoupling protein-2 protein expression. Also, rats drank RW had a significant increase in kidney/100 g B.W. but a decreased in creatinine levels were observed. As to diabetic rats groups, however, only a slightly significant decrease in plasma glucose and glucose area were observed. In additional, lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and distal region intestinal disaccharidases specific activities were observed in diabetes rats drank RW than those drank water. In hepatic antioxidant status, a significant increase in GSH concentration was observed in diabetic rats drank RW. These results indicate that RW may regulate the plasma glucose and lipid in normal rats, but has limited efficient in diabetic rats.
目錄

摘要 ……….. I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………..…..…IX
詞彙縮寫表 ………………………………………………….………………….……X
壹、研究背景 ………………………………………………………...……………1
貳、文獻整理 3
一、電解水 3
(一)、電解水簡介 3
(二)、電解水生成原理及其基本性狀 3
(三)、鹼性電解水 4
(四)、鹼性電解水的發現及應用 4
(五)、鹼性電解水的水質特性及其生理功能 5
5.1 呈鹼性 5
5.2 硬度 6
5.3 具有 (-) 氧化還原電位 (Oxidation reduction potential, ORP, Eh) 7
5.4 具有消除自由基的能力 8
(六)、不同原水對鹼性電解水水質的影響 10
(七)、鹼性電解水之貯存特性 11
二、糖尿病 12
(一)、糖尿病簡介 12
1.糖尿病診斷標準 13
2.糖尿病分類標準 15
(二)、第二型糖尿病的症狀 16
1胰島素阻抗 (Insulin resistance, IR) 17
(三)、葡萄糖耐受性不良(impaired glucose tolerance , IGT) 24
1. β細胞功能障礙 25
(四)、第二型糖尿病 (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) 26
1.糖尿病氧化壓力來源 27
(五)、內生性的抗氧化系統 33
1 非酵素性抗氧化防禦系統 35
2.酵素性抗氧化防禦系統 35
(六)、Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP 2) 37
(七)、膽固醇對脂質代謝的影響 38
(八)、STZ化學誘導糖尿病動物模式 38
1. Streptozotocin (STZ) 致糖尿病的機制 39
2. Nicotinamide (NA) 39
三 腸內細菌 40
(一)、腸內微生物的功能 40
(二) β-醛醣酸酶 (β-glucuronidase) 及黏液素酶 (mucinase) 41
參、研究內容 43
一、實驗流程 43
二、實驗材料 44
(一)、儀器設備 44
(二)、材料 44
三、實驗方法 47
(一) 電解水的收集及其基本產水性狀 47
(二) 動物實驗 48
1. 動物分組及誘導 48
2. 動物飼養及樣品收集 48
3. 血漿分析 49
3.1 葡萄糖 (glucose) 濃度測定 49
3.2 總膽固醇 (total cholesterol) 濃度測定 49
3.3 三酸甘油酯 (triglyceride) 濃度測定 49
3.4 胰島素 (Insulin) 濃度測定: 50
3.5 瘦體素 (leptin) 濃度測定: 50
3.6 果糖胺 (Fructosamine) 濃度測定 50
3.7 TBARS濃度測定 50
3.8 Lipoprotein測定 51
3.9 Aspartate transferase, AST (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GOT) 濃度測定 51
3.10 Alanine transferase, ALT (glutamic pyruvic ransaminase, GPT) 濃度測定 52
3.11 肌肝酸 (Creatinine) 濃度測定 52
3.12 尿酸 (Uric Acid) 濃度測定 52
4. 肝臟分析 52
4.1 肝臟脂質測定 52
4.2 glucose-6-phosphatase活性測定 53
4.3 Hexokinase活性之測定 53
4.4 glucose-6-P dehydrogenase活性測定 54
4.5 TBARS含量測定 54
4.6 GSH及GSSG含量測定 55
4.7 Se-Glutathion peroxidase活性測定 56
4.8 Glutathione reductase活性測定 57
4.9 Glutathion-S-transferase活性測定 57
4.10 Catalase活性測定 58
4.11 Superoxide dismutase活性測定 59
4.12 蛋白質測定 (Lowry method) 60
4.13 西方點墨法(westren blotting)- UCP2含量測定 60
5. 腎臟分析 62
5.1 TBARS含量測定 62
6. 盲腸分析 62
6.1 盲腸pH值及腸道長度的測定: 62
6.2 盲腸菌叢 63
7 小腸分析 64
7.1 雙醣酶活性測定 64
8 糞便之分析 65
8.1 糞便濕重、乾重 65
8.2 糞便pH值的分析 65
8.3 糞便脂質測定 65
8.4 糞便膽酸 (bile acid) 測定 66
8.5黏液素酶 (Mucinase) 活性測定 66
8.6 β-葡萄糖醛酸酶 (β-glucuronidase) 活性測定 67
9. 飲水量與排尿量測定 68
9.1飲水量 68
9.2排尿量 68
四. 統計分析 69
伍、討論 78
陸、結論 87
柒、參考文獻 108


表目錄

表一、實驗飼料組成 (%) 88
表二、飲用電解水六週後糖尿病大白鼠肝臟、腎臟與脂肪重量的變化 89
表三、飲用電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠生化指標濃度的影響 90
表四、飲用電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠血漿脂質及脂蛋白脂質含量的影響 91
表五、飲用電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠肝臟及糞便脂質含量的影響 92
表六、飲用電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠肝臟中醣類酵素活性的影響 93
表七、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠肝、腎臟中TBARS及肝臟中抗氧化酵素活性的變化 94
表八、飲用電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠小腸長度、盲腸PH值、盲腸總重、盲腸內容物含量與盲腸壁重的影響. 95
附表一. 電解水生成器之規格 127

圖目錄

圖一、大白鼠誘導為糖尿病一週後實行OGTT,其血漿葡萄糖及胰島素濃度的變化 96
圖二、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠體重及攝食量變化情形 97
圖三、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠飲水及排尿量變化情 98
圖四、糖尿病大白鼠飲用電解水六週後施行OGTT中血漿葡萄糖及胰島素濃度的變化 99
圖五、大白鼠誘導為糖尿病一週及飲用鹼性電解水六週後實行耐糖試驗之血糖面積 100
圖六、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠血漿葡萄糖含量的變化 101
圖七、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠血漿總三酸甘油酯及總膽固醇含量的變化 102
圖八、飲用電解水六週期間糖尿病大白鼠血漿TBARS含量的變化 103
圖九、利用西方點墨法分析飲用鹼性電解水六週後對糖尿病大白鼠肝臟粒線體中UCP2表現量的影響 104
圖十、飲用電解水六週對糖尿病大白鼠小腸前後段雙醣酶活性的影響 105
圖十一、飲用電解水六週對糖尿病大白鼠糞便細菌活性1的影響 106
圖十二、飲用電解水六週對糖尿病大白鼠盲腸菌叢的影響 107
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