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研究生:鄭嘉君
研究生(外文):Chia-Chun Cheng
論文名稱:民主品質的概念、測量與分析:台灣個案的研究
指導教授:張佑宗張佑宗引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:民主品質民主鞏固第三波民主化
外文關鍵詞:The Quality of DemocracyDemocratic ConsolidationThe third wave of democratization
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
民主品質的研究是近幾年來民主化研究中新興的領域,為何此議題會興起,是因為研究第三波民主化國家時,我們發現現在已經不是「量」的問題,而是「質」的問題,也就是同樣是民主化國家,但在民主的品質上卻有很大的差異。有些國家可以從程序的民主轉進到發展實質民主的階段,實現個人的自由、平等等權利,並擁有高品質的國家治理能力。有些國家反而處處侵犯基本人權、貪污腐敗,國家治理能力日益頹敗,將來或許會導致民主的腐蝕或崩潰。這些情況使得學者開始朝向更新且更細微地研究新興民主化國家民主制度的表現與問題,而民主品質的探討就是其中一個重要的研究課題。
因此,如何區分民主品質的內涵?建構具有信度與效度的測量指標?什麼樣的人對台灣的民主品質具有高度的評價?什麼樣的人對台灣的民主品質感到沮喪?不同的人在民主評價上所出現差異,是否會影響到他們對台灣民主體制的態度?這些問題是本文分析的重點,也是與台灣目前民主發展息息相關的重要問題。在資料上,本文採用「2002年至2004年『選舉與民主化調查』三年期研究規劃(II):民國九十二年民主化與政治變遷民調案」(TEDS 2003)之實證資料。
本文之實證結果顯示,台灣民眾在生產程序、實質內容和結果三個民主品質的測量面向上,都是負面的評價。而不同類型與心理傾向的民眾對台灣民主品質是否會出現不同的評價,則與政黨認同與統獨立場高度相關。至於民主品質與台灣民主發展的關係,則尚未有明顯的因果關係。
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 3
第三節 文獻回顧 7
第四節 研究架構 19
第五節 章節安排 22
第二章 概念測量與研究方法 23
第一節 概念測量 23
第二節 研究方法與資料說明 35
第三章 程序民主 41
第一節 法治的概念 41
第二節 參與及競爭的概念 47
第三節 課責的概念 51
第四節 台灣程序民主情況的評估 60
第五節 程序民主面向之指標建構 65
第四章 實質民主 69
第一節 公民權利的概念 69
第二節 台灣公民權利情況的評估 75
第三節 實質民主面向之指標建構 77
第五章 民主的實際運作程度 79
第一節 回應性的概念 79
第二節 台灣回應性情況的評估 84
第三節 民主的實際運作程度之指標建構 86
第六章 民主品質與民主展望 87
第一節 個人基本特質、政治態度與民主品質的評價 87
第二節 民主品質與台灣民主發展的關係 92
第七章 結論 96
第一節 研究結果 96
第二節 研究限制與建議 98
參考文獻 100
附錄一 民主品質文獻之整理 107
附錄二 問卷原始題目與重新編碼 108
一、中文部分
朱雲漢,2003,〈2000年至2004年「選舉與民主化調查」三年期研究規畫(Ⅱ):民國九十二年民主化與政治變遷民調案〉,計畫編號NSC92-2420-H-001-004。
———,2004,〈台灣民主發展的困境與挑戰〉,《台灣民主季刊》,第1卷第1期,頁142-162。
李酉潭,1999,〈邁向先進的民主:二十一世紀台灣民主化的展望〉,發表於《跨世紀的政治願景學術研討會論文集》,台中:私立東海大學,頁43-65。
林師模、陳苑欽,2004,《多變量分析:管理上的應用》,台北:雙葉書廊。
邱皓政,2004,《量化研究與統計分析:SPSS中文視窗版資料分析範例解析》,台北:五南。
陳一姍,2005,〈世銀調查 台灣整體表現退步〉,《中國時報》,2005/5/19,A3焦點新聞。
陳俊宏,2000,〈人權與民主(1):共生或互斥〉,《東吳政治學報》,第11期,頁107-142。
張佑宗,2000,〈文化變遷與民主鞏固:台灣民主化經驗的比較觀〉,台北,國立政治大學政治學研究所博士論文。
張孝評,2004,〈轉型、鞏固與深化—台灣民主化的分析〉,台北,國立政治大學中山人文社會科學研究所碩士論文。
潘 維,2003,《法制與”民主迷信” —一個法治主義者眼中的中國現代化與世界秩序》,香港:香港社會科學出版社。
二、英文部分
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Baker, Bruce. 1999. “The quality of African democracy: Why and how it should be measured.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 17(2), 273-286.
Beetham, David. 2004. “Towards a universal framework for democracy assessment.” Democratization, 11(2), 1-17.
Berg-Schlosser, Dirk. 2004. “The quality of democracies in Europe as measured by current indicators of democratization and good governance.” Journal of Communist Studies & Transition Politics, 20(1), 28-55.
Bollen, Kenneth. 1990. “Issues in the Comparative Measurement of Political Democracy.” American Sociological Review. 45: 370-90.
Croissant, Aurel. 2004. “From transition to defective democracy: Mapping Asian democratization.” Democratization, 11(5), 156-178.
Cullell, Jorge Vargas. 2004. “Democracy and the quality of democracy: Empirical findings and methodological and theoretical drawn from the citizen audit of the quality of democracy in Costa Rica.” In G. O''Donnell, J. V. Cullell & O. M. Iazzetta (Eds.), The quality of democracy (pp. 93-162). Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
Dalton, Russell J. and Nhu-Ngoc T. Ong. 2005. “Authority Orientation and Democratic Attitudes: A Test of the ‘Asian Values’ Hypothesis.” Japanese Journal of Political Science, 6(2): 1-21.
Diamond, Larry. 1999. Developing democracy: Toward consolidation: Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, Larry and Leonardo Morlino. 2004. “An Overview.” Journal of Democracy, 15(4):20-31.
Diamond, Larry and Leonardo Morlino. 2005. “ Introduction.” in Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino eds., Assessing the Quality of Democracy, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Eckstein, Harry, Frederic J. Fleron Jr., Erik P. Hoffmann and Willian M. Reisinger. 1998. Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet Russia: The Explorations in State Society Relation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Faundez, Julio. 2005. “The rule of law enterprise: Promoting a dialogue between practitioners and academics.” Democratization, 12(4), 567-586.
Foweraker, Joe and Roman Krznaric. 2000. “Measuring liberal democratic performance: An empirical and conceptual critique.” Political Studies, 48(4), 759-787.
Foweraker, Joe and Roman Krznaric. 2001. “How to construct a database of liberal democratic performance.” Democratization, 8(3), 1-25.
Foweraker, Joe and Roman Krznaric. 2003. “Differentiating the democratic performance of the west.” European Journal of Political Research, 42(3), 313-340.
Gasiorowski, Mark J. 1996. An Overview of the Political Regime Change Dataset. Comparative Political Studies, 29(4):469-483.
G. Bingham Powell Jr. 2004. “The Chain of Responsiveness.” Journal of Democracy, 15(4):91-105.
Hagopian, Frances. 2005. “Government Performance, Political Representation, and Public Perceptions of Contemporary Democracy in Latin America.” In Frances Hagopian and Scott P. Mainwaring(eds.), The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, pp. 319-362. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hartlyn, Jonathan. 1999. “Contemporary Latin America, Democracy and Consolidation: Unexpected Patterns, Shifting Concepts, Multiple Tasks.” Paper Presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991.The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, University of Oklahoma Press.
Inglehart, Ronald. 1990. Culture Shift: In Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Karl, Terry and Philippe C. Schmitter. 1991. “What Democracy is… and is Not.”Journal of Democracy, 2(3): 75-86.
Karatnycky, Adrian. 2005. Freedom in the world 2005: Freedom House.
Kaufmann, Daniel and Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi. 2005. Governance matters IV: Governance indicators for 1996-2004: World Bank.
Landman, Todd and Julia Häusermann. 2003. “Map-Making and Analysisof the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance.” Eurostat Contract No. 200221200005. Final Report. University of Essex—Human Rights Centre.
Linz, Juan J. and Alfred Stepan. 1996. “Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.” Journal of Democracy, 7(2):14-33.
Lijphart, Arend P. 1999. Patterns of democracy. Government forms and performance in thirty-six countries.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1994. “The Social Requisition of Democracy Revisited.” American Political Science Review, 59(1): 1-22.
Maravall, José María and Adam Przeworski. 2003. Democracy And The Rule Of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Méndez, Juan E. and Guollermo O’Donnell and Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro. 1999. The (Un)Rule of Law and the Underprivileged in Latin America. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
Merkel, Wolfgang. 2004. “Embedded and defective democracies.” Democratization, 11(5), 33-58.
Morlino, Leonardo. 2004. “What is good democracy?” Democratization, 11(5), 10-32.
Munck, Gerardo L. and Jay Verkuilen. 2002. “Conceptualizing and measuring democracy.” Comparative Political Studies, 35(1), 5-34.
Norris, Pippa. 1999. “Introduction: The Growth of Critical Citizens.” In Pippa Norris(ed.), Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Government, pp. 1-30. New York: Oxford University Press.
O''Donnell, Guillermo. 1996. “Illusions and Conceptual Flaws.” Journal of Democracy, 7(4):160-168.
O’Donnell, Guillermo. 1998. “Horizontal Accountability in New Democracies,” Journal of Democracy. 9(3): 112-126.
O''Donnell, Guillermo. 1999. "Horizontal Accountability in New Democracies" In Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner (Eds.) The Self-Restraining State: Power And Accountability In New Democracies. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
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Pharr, Susan J. and Robert D. Putnam, eds. 2000. Disaffected Democracies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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Schedler, Andreas. 1999. “Conceptualizing Accountability.” In Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner (Eds.) The Self-Restraining State: Power And Accountability In New Democracies. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc .
Schmitter, Philippe. 2004. “The Ambiguous Virtues of Accountability.” Journal of Democracy, 15(4):47-60.
Shin, Doh Chull and Chu Yun-han. 2004. “The quality of democracy in South Korea and Taiwan: Subjective assessment from the perspective of ordinary citizens,” in Larry Diamond and Leonardo Morlino eds., Assessing the Quality of Democracy, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Sorensen, Georg. 1993. Democracy and Democratization: Process and Prospectsin a Changing World. Boulder: Westview Press,
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Vanhanen, Tatu. 2003. Democratization: A Comparative analysis of 170 Countries. Routledge.
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