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研究生:黃小芳
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Fang Huang
論文名稱:英國中古晚期工匠行會的價格管制:以公正價格觀念為例
論文名稱(外文):Price control of Medieval England:the concept of Just Price
指導教授:楊肅獻楊肅獻引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:歷史學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:英國中古晚期工匠行會公正價格
外文關鍵詞:EnglandMedievalCraft GuildJust Price
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本篇文章企圖解決的問題,就是:「工匠行會是否足以控制價格」。在英國中古晚期的社會變化的過程中看出,手工業和商業有著基本上的對立,為了因應時勢,行會制定價格規定,使得商人無法在城鎮中從事商業活動,走出鄉間、促成了十五、六世紀大規模的新的工商業,也使得城鎮衰落。
這個課題所使用的方法,一個經院哲學觀念——「公正價格」這個觀念,這個觀念與「工匠行會控制價格的關係」有幾點:一、它們都同時包含著工資與價格的意義;二、公正價格為了維持社會階級(史學家看法),而行會就是其工具;三、公正價格就是市場價格(經院學家看法),而行會透過獨占就是阻礙公正價格的實現。
關於這個問題的討論我們得出這樣的結論:大體而言,工匠行會的影響力並不如想像地大,無論是在價格還是薪資上,他們的影響其實是有限的。我們的刻板印象是:行會由於保守和僵化制定了許多的規定,壓制了資本主義的成長,甚至它們的技術落後而導致自身的消失,但事實上行會的消失不是因為技術落後,而是由於國家政策。
英國中古晚期工匠行會的價格管制:以「公正價格」觀念為例
導論:探究資本主義的起源……………………………………………1
一、 資本主義起源的解釋
二、 中古英國工匠行會(Craft Guild)的研究概況
三、工匠行會的變化與資本主義起源的關係
四、本文課題、方法、結構

第一章 中古英國城鎮的社會控制與工匠行會(Crafts Guilds)8
第一節 外部控制:行會的歷史發展與市政府………………………8
一、商業發展與城鎮的興起
二、行會的出現:初始型態——商業行會(Gild Merchant)
第二節 內部控制:工匠行會的組織結構…………………………14
一、結構
二、功能

第二章 工匠行會與價格管制:以「公正價格」(Just Price)觀念為例………21
第一節 什麼是「公正價格」………………………………………21
一、經院學家:「公正價格」即是市場價格
二、經濟史學家:「公正價格」是為了維持社會階級
三、「公正價格」的定義問題
第二節 工匠行會與「公正價格」的關係…………………………26
一、工匠行會的壟斷行為
二、工匠行會固定價格和薪資

第三章 英國中古晚期工匠行會實行價格管制的變化……………32
第一節 外部變化:英國中古晚期的社會經濟變化………………33
一、影響工資的人口變化
二、影響價格的貨幣變化
第二節 內部變化:英國中古晚期工匠行會的變化………………40
一、行會分裂的因素
二、行會分裂形成工匠階級
第三節 中古晚期工匠行會是否影響「公正價格」?……………47
一、行會透過價格控制妨礙「公正價格」
二、行會透過「公正價格」維持社會階級
三、行會與價格制定
結語……………………………………………………………………58
參考書目………………………………………………………………60
一、中文書目

Ashley, W. J.,鄭學稼譯,《英國經濟史和學說》(An Introduction to English Economic History and Though),台北:幼獅,民國六十八年。
巫寶三主編,《歐洲中世紀經濟思想資料選輯》,傅舉晉等譯,北京:商務印書館,1998。
Cipolla, C. M.編,夏伯嘉譯,《歐洲經濟史——中古篇》,台北:遠流,1989。
Duplessis, R.,朱智強等譯,《早期歐洲近代資本主義形成過程》 (Transition to
Capitalism in Early Modern Europe),遼寧:遼寧教育出版社,2001;Cambridge
U. Press, 1997。
Thompson, J. W.,耿淡如譯,《中古經濟社會史》(Economic and Social History of the Middle Ages, 300-1300),北京:商務,1963。
M. Weber,鄭太补譯,《社會經濟史》,台北:商務,2004。

二、外文書目

Ashley, W. J., An Introduction to English Economic History and Theory, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1914-1919.
Black, A. Guilds and Civil Society in European Political Thought from the Twelfth Century to the Present, London: Methuen, 1984.
Bolton, J. L. The Medieval English Economy, 1150-1500, London, J. M. Dents&Sons
Ltd., 1980.
Bridbury, A. R. Economic Growth, England in the Later Middle Ages, London, 1962.
Cambridge Economic History, vol. II, edited by M. M. Postan, 2nd ed., Cambridge, 1960.
Cambridge Economic History, vol. III, edited by Postan, M. M., E. E. Rich, and Edward Miller, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
Clapham, J. H., A Concise History of Britain from the Earlier Time to 1750, Cambridge: University Press, 1951.
Dyer, C. C., Standerard of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England, 1200-1520 , Cambridge, 1989.
Dobb, M. Studies in the Development of Capitalism, London: G. Routledge & K. Paul, 1963.
English Historical Document, 1327-1485, vol. IV, edited by A. R. Myers, London: Routledge, 1969.
English Historical Documents, 1042-1189, vol. II, edited by David C. Douglas and George W. Greenaway, London: Routledge, 1981.
Epstein, S. A. Wage labor and Guild in Medieval Europe, Chapel Hill, NC, 1991.
“Craft Guilds”, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History, vol. 2, Oxford, 2003.
Flinn, M. W., An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1066-1939. London: Macmillan: New York: St. Martin''s Press, 1961.
Hilton, R. H., Class Conflict and the Crisis of Feudalism: Essays in Medieval Social History, London, 1990.
Hollister, C. W., Medieval Europe, A Short History, Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998, 8th ed.
Howell, M. C. Women, Production and Patriarchy, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1986.
Jarrett, B. Social Theories of the Middle Ages, 1200-1500, London: Eruest Benn Ltd., 1926.
Keen, M. H., England in the Later Middle Ages: a Political History. London: Routledge, 1973.
Kramer, S., The English Craft Gilds: studies in their progress. New York: Columbia university press, 1927.
Lipson, E. The Economic History of England, London: A&C. Black, 7th edn, 1937.
Lis C. and H. Soly, Poverty and Capitalism in Pre-industrial Europe, Atlantic Highlands, N.J. : Humanities Press, 1979.
McKisack, M. The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399, Oxford, 1959.
Miller E. and J. Hatcher, Medieval England: Towns, Commerce and Craft, 1086-1348 London, 1995.
Morgan, K. O. ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: University Press, 1984.
The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. VI c. 1300-1415, edited by M. Jones, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Phythian-Adams, C. Desolation of a City, Cambridge, 1979.
Postan, M. M., The Medieval Economy and Society, London, 1972.
Pirenne, H., Medieval Cities: Their Origins and Revival of Trade, translated by F. D. Halsey, London : George Godwin Limited, 1979.
Pirenne, H., Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe, translated by I. E. Clegg, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1937.
Pounds, N. J. G., An Economic History of Europe, New York: Longman, 1974.
Reid, W. S., Economic History of Great Britain, New York: Ronald Press Co., 1954.
Russel-Curuise, H. A Short History of English Work and Trade, London, 1939.
Salzman, L. F., English life in the Middle Ages, London :Oxford University Press, H. Milford, 1926.
Sidney, P. and B. Tierney, Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1475, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.
Singman, J. L., and W. Mclean, Daily Life in Chaucer’s England, Westport, Connecticut:Greenwood Press, 1995.
Smith, A. Inquiry into the Nature and Cause of the Wealth of Nations, New York: Modern Library, 1937.
Swanson, H., Medieval Artisans, Oxford: 1989.
Thompson, J. W., Economic and Social History of Europe in the Later Middle Ages (1300-1530), New York, London: The Century Co, 1931.
Unwin, G., The Gilds and companies of London, London: Methuen & Co. 1925.
Waugh, S. L., England in the Reign of Edward III , Cambridge, 1991.
Wood, D., Medieval Economic Thought , Cambridge, 2000.

三、期刊

王芝芝,〈薄迦丘與喬叟的「中古世界」:十四世紀歐洲〉,《中外文學》卷三十第五期,民國九十年。
Bailey, Mark, ‘Population Decline in the Late Medieval England: on Recent
Research’, The Economic History Review, vol.49, no.1, 1996.
Bridbury, A. R. ‘The Black Death’, The Economic History Review, vol.26, no.4,
1973.
Dyer, C. and S. A. C. Penn, ‘Wages and Earnings in late Medieval England: Evident from the Enforcement of Labour law’, repr. in Dyer, Everyday Life in Medieval England, London and Rio Grande, 1994.
Epstein, S. R. ‘Craft Guild, Apprenticeship, and Technological Change in Pre industrial Europe’, Journal of Economic History, vol. 3, 1998.
Hatcher, J., ‘England in the aftermath of the Black Death’, Past and Present, 144, 1994.
Nightingale, P. ‘Knights and merchants: trade, politics and the gentry in late medieval England’, Past and Present, No. 169, 2000.
── “Capitalists, Crafts and Constitutional Change in Late Fourteenth Century
London”, Past and Present, No. 124, 1989.
Richardson, G. “Craft Guilds and Christianity in Late-Medieval England: A
Rational-Choice Analysis”, Rationality and Society, Vol. 17, (May 2005)
── “Guilds, Laws, and Markets for Manufactured Merchandise in Late-Medieval England,” Exploration in Economic History 41 (2004).
De Roover, Raymond, ‘The Concept of the Just Price: Theory and Economic Policy’, Journal of Economic history, 18, 1958.
Rosser, G. “Craft, Guilds and the Negotiation of Work in the Medieval Town’, Past and Present, 1997.
Sullivan, D. “The End of Middle Ages: Decline, Crisis, or Transformation?” The History Teacher, vol.14, no.4, 1981.
Swanson, H. “The Illusion of Economic Structure: Craft Guilds in Late Medieval English towns”, Past and Present, 1988.
Trupp, S. L. “Social Control in the Medieval town” Journal of Economic History, vol.1, 1942.
── “ Medieval Guilds Reconsidered”, Journal of Economic History (Nov.), 1942.
Verhulst, A. “The State of Research. Medieval Socio-Economic Historiography in Western Europe: Towards an Integrated Approach”, Journal of Medieval History, vol. 23, no.1, 1997.
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