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研究生:林彥甫
研究生(外文):Yan-fu Lin
論文名稱:Pr1-xSrxMO3應用於高溫型混合電位式NO2氣體感測器之研究
論文名稱(外文):Use of Pr1-xSrxMO3 in high-temperature mixed-potential NO2 gas sensor
指導教授:蕭敬業
指導教授(外文):Ching-yeh Shiau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:鈣鈦礦結構陰極混合電位式二氧化氮感測器
外文關鍵詞:perovskite-type oxidescathodemixed-potentialNO2 sensor
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本論文旨在研究鈣鈦礦結構氧化物陰極材料應用於二氧化氮感測器的特性,使用的材料分別為Pr0.7Sr0.3CrO3-δ、Pr0.7Sr0.3FeO3-δ以及Pr0.7Sr0.3CoO3-δ。電極粉末是使用溶膠凝膠法製備而得。利用檸檬酸鹽前導化合物經煅燒,混合有機溶劑成為網印膠,再將網印膠以網印法塗布到YSZ電解質錠片上燒結,完成後得到所需要之感測電極,而此電極以XRD、FE-SEM等設備來進行分析,最後再組裝成感測器進行二氧化氮氣體感測。
XRD分析結果顯示,所選用的三種材料皆為鈣鈦礦結構。而FE-SEM圖片顯示煅燒溫度越高的粉末其平均粒徑越大;網印膠濃度越稀薄,製備完成後的電極厚度越薄。從NO2感測特性結果可知,應答電位最大的電極材料為Pr0.7Sr0.3CrO3-δ,而其最佳煅燒溫度為1200℃,最佳電極的厚度條件是以1:5粉末溶劑比所燒結的電極,其應答電位差最大且回復時間最短。操作電流以施加1µA有最小的應答電位差但是卻有最短的回復時間。
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of perovskite oxide used as cathode for NO2 sensor. Three kinds of perovskite-type oxides were used including Pr0.7Sr0.3CrO3-δ, Pr0.7Sr0.3FeO3-δ and Pr0.7Sr0.3CoO3-δ. The electrodes were prepared by sol-gel method. The sensing electrode was made by mixing the calcined precursor with organic solvent.
The slurry thus obtained was then printed on YSZ pellets by screen-printing method and sintered to form sensing electrodes. The electrodes were characterized by XRD and FE-SEM, and finally tested in the assembled NO2 sensors.
From XRD patterns, all the prepared oxide powers were found to be perovskite type. FE-SEM photos show that the average particle size was increased with increasing calcined temperature. A thinner sensing electrode was obtained by using dilute slurry.
NO2 sensing analysis shows that Pr0.7Sr0.3CrO3-δ was found to be the best oxide power for NO2 sensing electrode. The optimal calcined temperature is 1200℃. The better slurry concentration for the sensing electrode was found to be 1:5 wt. ratio of oxide powder to organic solvent. Such prepared sensing electrode presents larger voltage change and shorter recovery time. The best current bias for the sensing system was 1µA.
目錄

摘要…………………………………………………………………..………Ⅰ
Abstract……………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
致謝………………………………………………………………………..…Ⅳ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………..Ⅷ
……………………………..………Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………..ⅩⅢ
符號說明…………………………………………………………………..ⅩⅣ
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………..…1
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………....3
2-1氣體感測器的種類與原理……………………………………………...3
2-1-1 觸媒燃燒型氣體感測器…………………………………………...3
2-1-2 金屬氧化物半導體氣體感測器……………………………………4
2-1-3 場效電晶體型氣體感測器……………………………………...….6
2-1-4 電阻式感測器……………………….………..………………….…7
2-1-5 電化學固態電解質型氣體感測器…………………………...…….9
2-1-5-1 平衡電位式感測………………………………………..……10
2-1-5-2 極限電流式感測器…………………………………………..12
2-1-5-3 混合電位式感測器………………………………………..…14
2-2 電極材料……………………………………………………….………19
2-2-1 貴金屬電極………………………………………………………..19
2-2-2 貴金屬合金電極…………………………………………………..20
2-2-3 離子電子混合導體電極…………………………………..………21
2-2-4 單一金屬氧化物電極……………………………………..………23
2-2-5 鈣鈦礦結構氧化物電極……………………………………….….27
2-2-5-1 鈣鈦礦結構組成……………………………………………..27
2-2-5-2 鈣鈦礦結構之穩定性………………………………………..28
2-2-5-3 鈣鈦礦結構電極NOX感測器……………………………….29
2-2-5-4 以Pr代替La的鈣鈦礦結構……………………………..….32
2-3 粉體製備……………………………………………………………….33
2-3-1 共沈法…………………………………………………………..…34
2-3-2 水熱法……………………………………………………………..35
2-3-3 溶膠-凝膠法………………………………………………………36
第三章 實驗方法與步驟………………………………………………...….40
3-1 實驗流程……………………………………………………………….40
3-2 儀器設備………………………………………………………...……..41
3-3 實驗藥品…………………………………………………….....………42
3-4 氣體感測裝置…………………………………………………….....…43
3-5 感測元件的製備……………………………………………….………46
3-5-1 製備電極粉末……………………………………………………..46
3-5-2 調製電極網印用膠………………………………………………..48
3-5-3 乾壓法製備YSZ電解質片………………………………….……49
3-5-4 製作Pt電極……………………………………………………….52
3-5-5 製作鈣鈦礦氧化物電極…………………………………………..52
3-5-6 連接Pt導線…………………………………………………….....53
3-6 感測元件的特性鑑定與分析………………………………………….54
3-6-1 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(FE-SEM)………………….…….55
3-6-2愛克斯光粉末繞射儀(XRD)……………………………………56
3-7 氣體感測特性之研究…………………………………………….……58
3-7-1 NOx感測器反應機制………………………………………..…58
3-7-2 氣體感測示意圖 …………………………………………….….58
第四章 結果與論………………………………………………….………...60
4-1 電極的鑑定…………………………………………………………….60
4-1-1 場發射掃描式電子顯微鏡(FE-SEM)………………………..60
4-1-1-1 Pt相對電極分析………………………….....................….61
4-1-1-2 PrSrCr電極分析…………………………………….…….62
4-1-1-3 PrSrFe電極分析…………………………………………..64
4-1-1-4 PrSrCo電極分析………………………………………….66
4-1-2 愛克斯光繞射分析(XRD)………………………………….68
4-2 電極感測分析………………………………………………………….71
4-2-1 PrSrCr電極…………..................................................................71
4-2-1-1 煅燒溫度對NO2感測的影響……………………………....71

4-2-1-2 不同網印膠濃度所製備的電極對NO2感測之影響………76

4-2-2 PrSrCr、PrSrFe、PrSrCo電極比較………………………...…80

4-2-3 不同操作電流對NO2感測之影響…………………….………84

4-2-4 不同氣體流速對NO2感測之影響…………………….………85

第五章………………………………………………………………………...87
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………...89
附錄A……………………………………………………………………...…97
附錄B………………………………………………………………………...98

圖目錄

圖2-1 觸媒燃燒型氣體感測器之感測元件……………...………………….4
圖2-2 場效電晶體型感測器之感測元件…………………………...………6
圖2-3 低溫共燒陶瓷電阻式感測器元件……………………….…………8
圖2-4 以SnO2為感測材料之電阻式感測器元件……………………….…8
圖2-5 以SnO2-CeO2-PdOx作為感測材料之電阻式感測元件…………….9
圖2-6 YSZ電解質氧氣感測器之感測元件................................................10
圖2-7 頂針形YSZ電位式氧氣感測器.........................................................12
圖2-8 小孔形式極限電流氧氣感測器…………………………………..…13
圖2-9 孔隙層形式極限電流氧氣感測器…………………………..………13
圖2-10 三層式YSZ-Al2O3孔隙/電解質層之極限電流感測器…………...14

圖2-11 以SDC為電解質之小孔形式極限電流氧氣感測器………………14
圖2-12 以ZnO為電極之混合電位式感測器………………………..….…17
圖2-13 混合電位式感測器(a)管狀型(b)平板型.…………………...17
圖2-14 以ZeFe2O4為電極之混合電位式NOx感測器……………………18
圖2-15 氧化物感測材料之混合電位式感測器………………………..…..18
………53
圖2-16 以Pt與Au為電極之感測元件…………………………………....20
……….54
圖2-17 以Ni-Ti為合金電極之感測元件……………………………….…20
..55
圖2-18 以氧化物為感測電極之NOx感測器………………………………24
圖2-19 以金屬氧化物為電極的感測器元件………………………………25
圖2-20 三種電極配置方式…………………………………………………26
圖2-21 以NiO感測電極的NOx感測器 (a)正面(b)背面……………..…27
圖2-22 鈣鈦礦結構(ABO3)示意圖…………………………………………28
圖2-23 (Pt)LaFeO3/YSZ/Pt感測器之感測元件………………………..…30
圖2-24 對稱半圓、不對稱半圓以及指叉形電極示意圖……………….…31
圖2-25 感測材料塗佈位置示意圖…………………………………………31
圖2-26 (a)半圓形電極(b)指叉形電極………………………………32
圖3-1 實驗設計流程圖……………………………………………………..41
圖3-2 實驗感測流程圖…………………………………………………......44
………………57
圖3-3 實驗裝置圖……………………………………………………….….45
。活
圖3-4 反應管構造圖………………………………………………………...45
圖3-5 感測器側面示意圖……………………………………………….….46
圖3-6 溶膠-凝膠之煅燒750℃之程式升溫圖………………………….….48
.59
圖3-7 感測電極之網印膠製備流程圖………………………….………….50

圖3-8 壓製YSZ生胚之不鏽鋼模具…………………………………….51
………….60
圖3-9 燒結YSZ電解質之程式升溫圖…………………………………51
圖3-10 網印機示意圖………………………………………………………53
圖3-11 網版圖案……………………………………………………………53
圖3-12 NO2感測器(a)感測電極(b)Pt電極……………………..…54
圖3-13 X-ray經過晶體的繞射示意圖……………………………………58
圖3-14 NO2感測器簡化之理想機制示意圖…………………………..…59
圖4-1 Pt電極以1000℃燒結1小時後之表面形態………………………61
……
.61
圖4-2 Pt電極以750℃燒結1小時後之表面形態……………………… 62

圖4-3 Pt電極以750℃燒結1小時後之截面形態……………………….62
圖4-4 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr電極表面,粉末的煅燒溫度分別為

(a)750℃(b)900℃(c)1050℃(d)1200℃(e)1350℃………63


圖4-5 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr粉末製備之電極截面圖
網印膠的比例分別為(a)1:1(b)1:2(c)1:5……………64

圖4-6 以750℃煅燒的PrSrFe粉末製備之電極表面圖…………………..65
圖4-7 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrFe粉末製備之電極表面圖…………………65
圖4-8 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrFe粉末,網印膠的比例分別為

(a)1:1(b)1:5……………………………………………….66
圖4-9 以750℃煅燒的PrSrCo粉末製備之電極表面圖………………….67

圖4-10 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCo粉末製備之電極表面圖………………..67

圖4-11 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCo粉末,網印膠的比例分別為
(a)1:1(b)1:5……………………………………………….68
圖4-12 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr粉末之XRD分析圖………………….…69

圖4-13 煅燒750℃以及1200℃的PrSrFe粉末之XRD分析圖………….70

圖4-14 煅燒750℃以及1200℃的PrSrCo粉末之XRD分析圖………….70

圖4-15 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr粉末製備的電極,在450℃氣溫下

應答電位圖……………………………………………………...…71

圖4-16 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr粉末製備的電極,在500℃氣溫下
水洗後,再利用
應答電位圖……………………………………………………...…72

圖4-17 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr粉末製備的電極,在550℃氣溫下

應答電位圖……………………………………………………...…72
圖4-18 不同煅燒溫度PrSrCr在450℃氣溫下的電位差比較圖………….73

圖4-19 不同煅燒溫度PrSrCr在500℃氣溫下的電位差比較圖…………..74
圖4-20 不同煅燒溫度PrSrCr在550℃氣溫下的電位差比較圖………….74


圖4-21 不同煅燒溫度的PrSrCr粉末之最大特性峰比較圖……………....75
圖4-22 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在450℃測試溫度下的應答圖…………………………………....77
圖4-23 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在500℃測試溫度下的應答圖…………………………………….77
圖4-24 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在550℃測試溫度下的應答圖………………………………..…..78
圖4-25 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在450℃測試溫度下的電位差比較圖…………………………....79
圖4-26 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在500℃測試溫度下的電位差比較圖…………………………….79
圖4-27 煅燒1200℃的PrSrCr粉末,以不同濃度的網印膠製備的電極

在550℃測試溫度下的電位差比較圖…………………………....80
圖4-28 以750℃煅燒的PrSrCr、PrSrFe以及PrSrCo粉末,用1:1
mg/L
網印膠製備的電極,在450℃測試溫度下的應答電位圖……….81
圖4-29 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr、PrSrFe以及PrSrCo粉末,用1:1
網印膠製備的電極,在450℃測試溫度下的應答電位圖……….81
圖4-30 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr、PrSrFe以及PrSrCo粉末,用1:5

網印膠製備的電極,在450℃測試溫度下的應答電位圖……….83
圖4-31 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr、PrSrFe以及PrSrCo粉末,用1:5

網印膠製備的電極,在500℃測試溫度下的應答電位圖………83
圖4-32 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr、PrSrFe以及PrSrCo粉末,用1:5


網印膠製備的電極,在550℃測試溫度下的應答電位圖…….…84

圖4-33 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr粉末,用1:5網印膠製備的電極,
Zn2+
在550℃測試溫度下,操作電流對NO2感測之影響……………85
圖4-34 以1200℃煅燒的PrSrCr粉末,比較不同氣體流速對
應答電位的影響…………………………………………………...86
























表目錄

表 2-1 半導體/添加物/可測氣體………………………………...…………..5
表 2-2 各類mixed-potential 型式感測器…...……………………………..16
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