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研究生:吳美玲
研究生(外文):Mei-ling Wu
論文名稱:華語移民對巴西葡語/t/和/d/音素的感知研究
論文名稱(外文):Immigrant Native Chinese Speakers'' Perception ofBrazilian Portuguese /t/ and /d/ Phonemes
指導教授:蔡恪恕蔡恪恕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jozsef Szakos
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006/05/
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:語言和非語言因素音韻音素擦音化感知巴西葡語
外文關鍵詞:linguistic and extralinguistic factorsphonologyphonemespalatalizationperceptionBrazilian Portuguese
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本研究的主旨是要了解巴西華僑對於葡語的子音/t/ 和/d/音素的感知能力。此研究包含二個實驗:一個是此音素於單字的聽力測驗,而另一個則是此音素於句型的聽力測驗。前者是探討華語人士學習葡語的/t/ 和/d/的語言與非語言(年齡和性別差異)因素之關係。後者則分析比較葡語/t/ 和/d/於單字和句型的結果,並且診察有英語/t/ 和/d/的認知背景是否有助於華語人士對葡語的/t/ 和/d/音的感知。
實驗過程是由一位27歲的男士於巴西幫忙召集測試者及實施測驗工作,他住巴西已有18年之久,並能講流利的葡語 、國台語及英語。而受試者都是移民巴西未滿五年的華人。第一個實驗我們召集到了55位受試者,研究的依變項採等距量尺測量,因此百分比及變異數分析用來比較他們所答對/t/ 和/d/的平均分數(每題一分)。第二個實驗由其中的46位受試者參加本研究,因此百分比用來測量比較葡語/t/ 和/d/於單字和句型的結果,而變異數分析則用來探究「有」和「無」英語背景的華人對葡語的/t/ 和/d/音/於單字和句型的辯音結果。
本實驗結果顯示如下:
(壹)語言因素:(一)葡語的/t/於單字的聽力測驗比/d/容易分辨,但/d/於句型的聽力測驗則比/t/容易分辨 – 這顯示著(1)母語與第二語言的類似音/t/,有助於學習者對葡語此音單字的音感辨別,而和第二語言不同的新音/d/ ,則有助於學習者對葡語此音句型的音感辨別;(2)有/t/ 和 /d/ 音的單字於句型中能提供學習葡語的華人,對前後文字情境有線索般的輔助性理解。(二)對於學習葡語的華人,如果/t/ 和 /d/ 後接高母音比後接低母音還要難清楚分辨,而複子音也未必比單子音還要難分辨。(三)塞擦音化和重音現象也會影響聽者的感知:在重音節的/t/和/d/音素比在輕音節裡還要容易辨音,而非塞擦音化現象也比有塞擦音化的音容易。(四)有英語/t/ 和/d/的認知背景之華語人士,的確有助於他們對葡語的/t/ 和/d/音素於句型中的感知。
(貳)非語言因素:(一)年齡差異對於華人在葡語/t/ 和/d/音素的感知有關:年輕人表現比中年好而中年比年老的表現好。(二)性別差異對於華人在葡語/t/ 和/d/音素的感知沒有關係:女性受試者沒有比男性受試者表現來的好- 學習動機之中,人際因素會影響學習成效。
The main purpose of this study is to understand how well the Chinese speaking learners in Brazil perceive the Portuguese consonants of the /t/ and /d/ phonemes. There are two experiments in this study: one is on the perception in words, and the other is on that in sentences. The former investigated the native Chinese learning of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ related to linguistic and extralinguistic factors (age and gender differences). The latter compared the outcomes of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ in words and sentences, and it also examined if Chinese learners with English /t/ and /d/ knowledge improve their perception of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ phonemes.
A 27-year-old man able to understand Portuguese, Mandarin and English, and having 18 years of experience speaking Portuguese in Brazil, carried out the procedure of testing to those living in Brazil. All participants are native Chinese speakers living in Brazil less than five years. Fifty-five participants were collected in the first experiment and the dependent variables are evaluated on interval scales, so the percentage value and the ANOVA test are used to compare their mean scores (one point per each item) of correct performance on the /t/ and /d/ test. Forty-six of the participants took part in the second experiment; the whole-view outcome of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ in words and in sentences were compared by percentage of correctness to know if the recognition of phonemes is higher in sentences than in words and ANOVA tests were also used to compare the Chinese with and without an English background distinguishing the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ phonemes in words and sentences.
The results are given below:
(1) Linguistic factors: (a) the Portuguese /t/ is easier to discriminate than /d/ in words, but /d/ is easier than /t/ in sentences – it indicated that, first, the similar sound /t/ in L1 and L2 can help learners with their perceptual discrimination in word perception, while the new sound /d/ in L2 is more effective than that in sentential perception and, second, the /t/ and /d/ words in sentence provide Chinese learners of Portuguese with context as a cue in interpretation; (b) it is more difficult for Chinese learners of Portuguese to correctly perceive when /t/’s and /d/’s following segments are high vowels than when those are low ones, but it is not necessarily more difficult for Chinese to distinguish the consonant clusters than the simple consonants; (c) palatalization and tonicity also have an effect on the listeners’ perception: the /t/ and /d/ phonemes in the stressed syllables are easier to discriminate than those in the unstressed ones, and the palatal realizations are more difficult to discriminate than those non-palatalization; (d) the Chinese learners with English background may improve their sentential perception of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ phonemes.
(2) Extralinguistic factors: (a) age differences have to do with perception of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ phonemes: Chinese who are younger perform better than those who are middle aged and the middle aged perform better than those who are older; (b) gender differences do not relate to the perceptual proficiency: the females do not have better performance of the perceptual phonemes than the males’ – the interpersonal factor of the attitude and motivation seem to affect the perceptual learning achievement.
Table of Contents


Page


Table of Contents i

Acknowledgments v

Chinese Abstract vi

English Abstract viii

List of Tables x

List of Figures xii

List of Appendices xiii

CHAPTERS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Linguistic background 1
1.2 Conception on extralinguistic factors 2
1.2.1 Gender 3
1.2.2 Age 4
1.3 Conception on phonological - linguistic factors 6
1.4 Purpose of the study 13
1.5 Layout of the study 15
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 16
2.1 Factors in second language learning 16
2.2 Different ages in second language acquisition 19
2.2.1 Speech perception at the critical age for language acquisition 21
2.3 Different genders in learning languages 24
2.4 Second language leaning phonology 26
2.4.1 Similar and new sounds 30
2.5 Speech perception 32
2.6 Phonologically perceptual system 35
2.7 Issues in /t/ and /d/ sounds 37
2.7. 1 Speech perception on the English /t/ and /d/ phonemes 39
2.7. 2 Issues of the Chinese /t/ and /d/ phonemes 43
2.7. 3 Description of the Portuguese /t/ and /d/ phonemes 48
2. 7. 3. 1 Palatalization of the /t/ and /d/ phonemes 52
3. METHODOLOGY 59
3.1 The first experiment (perception in words) 59
3.1.1 Subjects 59
3.1.2 Materials and data collection procedures 60
3.1.3 Data analysis procedures 61

3.2 The second experiment (perception in sentences) 62
3.2.1 Subjects 62
3.2.2 Materials and data collection procedures 62
3.2.3 Data analysis procedures 63
4. RESULTS 65
4.1 Perception in words 65
4.1.1 Linguistic factors 65
4.1.2 Extralinguistic factors 67
4.1.2a Generation differences 67
4.1.2b Gender differences 75
4.2 Perception in sentences 81
5. DISCUSSION 88
5.1 Linguistic factors 88
5.1.1 Perception in words 88
5.1.2 Perception in sentences 92
5.2 Extralinguistic factors 94
5.2.1 Age differences 94
5.2.2 Genders differences 96
6. CONCLUSION 98
6.1 Summary 98
6.2 Implications 100
6.3 Limitations of the study 102
6.4 Suggestions for future research 103

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