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研究生:邱青郁
研究生(外文):Ching-yu Chiu
論文名稱:分享女性力量:論童妮.摩里森《天堂》中之女性角色
論文名稱(外文):Sharing Female Power: The Female Characters in Toni Morrison’s Paradise
指導教授:海柏海柏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Patricia Haseltine
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006/07/
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:對比分析美學童妮.摩里森天堂人物性格特色
外文關鍵詞:contrastive analysisToni MorrisoncharacterizationaestheticsParadise
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本論文主要是在探討美國黑人女作家童妮.摩里森所著之小說《天堂》當中的女性角色。和其他早期的作品一樣,摩里森在《天堂》當中展現她獨到的鋪陳角色的美學。繼《摯愛》之後,摩里森再度以身心受創的女子來呈現女性角色的獨特性;在《天堂》當中讀者可以發現不同種類的女性角色:例如身體承受極大痛苦的女子或是富有知識卻也同時承受心靈折磨的女人,以及具有治癒他人身心創傷能力的女子。
本論文共分五個章節,第一章介紹童妮.摩里森的生平及其早期作品當中所創造的女性角色,例如:在《至藍之眼》中極度渴望擁有藍色雙眼的黑人小女孩皮寇拉,或是在《蘇拉》中違反社會規範的女子蘇拉,以及在《摯愛》當中苦受折磨的母親莎特。第二章剖析在《天堂》這部作品中兩個飽受身體上苦的母親—瑪維絲及絲維娣。摩里森將瑪維絲描繪成為了獲得自我而逃脫社會規範的女子,同時也創造了絲維娣,一個為了照顧四個患有殘疾的孩子而放棄追求自我的母親。第三章討論富有知識的女子派翠西亞及其身處在深信血統純正的露比鎮,心理上所承受的苦痛。身為露比鎮的教師及歷史記錄者,派翠西亞原本計畫完成露比鎮各家族的家譜,但最後她親手摧毀了她努力多年的記錄,象徵她挑戰露比鎮根深蒂固的種族制度及父權體系。第四章探討兩位具有超自然力量的女人—蘿妮和康索拉塔,他們代表了摩里森筆下典型的偉大母親角色,引領著身心受創的女子獲得重生的力量。在第五章結論當中,分析黑人女性在追求獨立自主的過程中必須經歷的困難,以及摩里森在《天堂》這部小說中刻畫女性角色時所展現出的獨特美學。
This thesis focuses on the female characters that Toni Morrison depicts in her first post-Nobel novel, Paradise. It shows how Morrison develops her aesthetics of characterization from novel to novel and how the characterizations in Paradise are similar to characterizations in her earlier novels. I hold that Morrison is continuing to develop an interrelated aesthetic of characterization which contrasts impoverished women, who are bodily tortured and torturing, with educated women, who face intellectual dilemmas, and spiritual women, who heal others.
The thesis consists of five chapters. In the introduction, Toni Morrison’s life history and the kinds of female characters she has developed in her earlier works, such as Pecola, a black girl who longs for blue eyes in The Bluest Eye, or Sula, a woman who acts out of the social norms in Sula, and the tortured mother, Sethe in Beloved, are sketched. Chapter Two handles Mavis and Sweetie, whose suffering is related to the body, in the novel Paradise. Morrison creates Mavis, a mother who escapes from the social norms of being a good mother to get her own subjectivity, and Sweetie, a mother who submits to the socially constructed values and sacrifices her own subjectivity for her physically disadvantaged children. Chapter Three deals with the educated woman, Patricia, who is tortured in mind under the blood rule in Ruby. As the town’s teacher and historian in Ruby, Patricia desires to write the town’s history. I analyze her agonized decision to destroy the genealogy she has worked on for years as a symbolic act of defiance against the town’s intra-racism and patriarchy. Chapter Four centers on Lone and Consolata, women who have supernatural powers. Both Lone and Consolata represent Morrison’s great mother figures that serve to guide and instruct tortured women to get strength and grow in spirit. In the conclusion, I discuss the difficulties that black women face in the process of pursuing individuality, as well as Morrison’s artistic accomplishment in creating and drawing significant contrasts between her female characters in Paradise.
Contents

Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………….i
English Abstract………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………iv


Chapter 1. Introduction: Toni Morrison and Her Focus on Female Differences 1
Chapter 2. Morrison’s Tortured Mothers 16
Chapter 3. Patricia Best-The Woman Who Writes History 31
Chapter 4. Lone DuPres and Consolata Sosa-Women With Supernatural Power 49
Chapter 5. Conclusion: Searching for Female Power 64
Works Cited 76
Appendix: Chart-Female Characters in Toni Morrison’s Works 82
Works Cited


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Davies, Carole B. “Mother Right/Write Revisited: Beloved and Dessa Rose and the Construction of Motherhood in Black Women’s Fiction.” Narrating Mothers: Theorizing Maternal Subjectivities. Eds. Brenda O. Daly and Maureen T. Reddy. Memphis: U of Tennessee P, 1991. 44-57.
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Gay Wilentz. “Civilizations Underneath: African Heritage as Cultural Discourse in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Toni Morrison’s Fiction: Contemporary Criticism. Ed. David L. Middleton. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000. pp. 109-133.


Giles-Sims, J. “The Aftermath of Partner Violence.” Partner Violence: A Comprehensive Review of 20 Years of Research. Eds. J. L. Jasinski and L. M. Williams. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998. 44-72.
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Higgins, Therese E. Religiosity, Cosmology, and Folklore: The African Influence in the Novels of Toni Morrison. Ann Arbor: Bell &Howell Information and Learning Company, 2000.
Hirsch, Marianne. “Maternity and Rememory: Toni Morrison’s Beloved.” Representations of Motherhood. Eds. Donna Bassin, Margaret Honey and Merle Mahrer K. New Haven: U of Yale P, 1994. 92-110.
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Jones, Bessie W. and Audrey Vinson. “An Interview With Toni Morrison.” Conversation. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: Mississippi University Press, 1994. pp.171-187.

Katrine, Dalsgard. “The One All Black Town Worth the Pain: (African) American Exceptionalism, Historical Narration, and the Critique of Nationhood in Toni Morrison’s Paradise.” African American Review, 35. 2 (2001):233-48.
Kenyon, Olga, “Interview with Toni Morrison”, Baetyl, 2, 1993, 18.
Keren De Witt, “ Song of Soloman: Toni Morrison’s Saga Is Praised in All the Proper Places,” Washington Post, 30 September 1977: p. C1.
Krumholz, Linda J.: "Reading and insight in Toni Morrison''s Paradise." African American Review. 36.1 (2002): 22-34.
Lienhardt, Godfrey. “The Shilluk of the Upper Nile.” African Worlds. Ed. Daryl Forde. London: Oxford University Press, 1954. pp.138-163.
Marcus, James. “This Side of Paradise.” Interview with Toni Morrison. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/lg/feature/-/7651/002-5902217-4420056
McDonnell, Jane. “Mothering an Autistic Child: Reclaiming the Voice of the Mother.” Narrating Mothers: Theorizing Maternal Subjectivities. Eds. Brenda O. Daly and Maureen T. Reddy. Memphis: U of Tennessee P, 1991. p.64.
McDowell, Deborah. “New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism.” Black American Literature Forum, 14, 4, Winter, 1986.
Michael, Magall C. “Re-Imagining Agency: Toni Morrison’s Paradise.” African American Review. 36. 4 (2003):643-61.
Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Knopf, 1987.
---. Conversation with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994.
---. Paradise. New York: Knopf, 1998.
---. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage Books, 1993. v-xiiii.
---. “Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation.” In Mari Evans, PP. 339-45.
---. Song of Solomon. New York: Knopf, 1977.
---. Sula. New York: Knopf, 1973.
---. The Bluest Eye. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1970.
Ormerod, Beverly. “Magical Realism in Contemporary French Caribbean Literature: Ideology or Literary Diversion?” Australian Journal of French Studies 34.2 (1997): 216-26.
Parrinder, Geoffrey. African Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1982.
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Puckett, Newbell Niles. The Magic and Folk Beliefs of the Southern Negro. New York: Dover Publications, 1969.
Rushdy, Ashraf H. A.. “Rememory: Primal Scenes and Constructions in Toni Morrison’s Novels.” Toni Morrison’s Fiction:Contemporary Criticism. Ed. David L. Middleton. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000. pp 135-161.

Stepto, Robert B. “Intimate Things in Place: A Conversation with Toni Morrison,” Massachusetts Review 18, Autumn 1977: pp.473-89. Rpt. In Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, Eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and K. A. Appiah. New York: Amistad, 1993. 381-392.
Tate, Claudia (ed.), Black Women Writers at Work. Harpenden: Oldcastle Books, 1985.
Verdelle, A. J. "Paradise Found: A Talk with Toni Morrison About Her New Novel." Essence 28.10 (February 1998): 78, 80.
Wilentz, Gay. “The Politics of Exile.” Arms Akimbo- Africana Women in Contemporary Literature. Eds. Janice Liddell and Yakini B. Kemp. Gainesville: U of Florida P, 1999. pp.162-175.
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