(18.232.50.137) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/06 16:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉瑩敏
研究生(外文):Ying-Min Liu
論文名稱:葡萄子萃取物-原花色素對慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者體內抗氧化狀況之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins extract from grape seeds on the antioxidant status of COPD patient
指導教授:詹吟菁詹吟菁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yin-Ching Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:慢性阻塞性肺疾病原花色素肺功能抗氧化狀況
外文關鍵詞:COPDOPCantioxidant statuslung function
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:263
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
研究指出氧化失衡可能是導致慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD)的原因之一。由葡萄子萃取出之原花色素(OPC)對自由基的清除力較相同劑量(50mg/l)之維生素C及維生素E強,但是OPC對COPD患者的影響則尚不明確。故本研究目的在探討補充原花色素對COPD患者體內抗氧化狀況及肺功能之影響。將COPD患者隨機分為補充安慰劑之控制組(n=14)及補充150mg/day之原花色素組(n=13),實驗為期2個月,於實驗之第0週及第8週,收取空腹血液樣本進行血液學檢查、生化檢查及氧化狀態分析。此外,並進行體位測量、飲食問卷調查及肺功能檢查。結果顯示,OPC可以顯著降低受試者血漿中MDA之濃度及血球中SOD之酵素活性(P<0.05),並有降低血球中Catalase、GSH-Px酵素活性之趨勢。此外,OPC亦可以顯著降低受試者血漿中LDL-C之濃度(P<0.05) ,並有降低心血管危險指標即TC/HDL-C ratio及血漿中TG之趨勢;但是,OPC對於肺功能檢查中之 FEV1、FVC、FEV1/ FVC及PEFR則無顯著影響。綜合以上結果,葡萄子萃取出之原花色素(OPC)可以改善COPD患者之氧化狀態,但對於肺功能之改善功效則有待長時期的評估。
Many studies indicated that the oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Experiment demonstrated that the Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins(OPC) extract from grape seeds was a more potent scavenger of oxygen free radicals as compared with vitamin C and vitamin E. However, the effects of OPC in COPD patients are still not well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OPC on the antioxidant status and lung function in COPD patients. COPD patients were double-blinded, randomly divided into either control (n=14) or experimental group (n=13).The experimental group was supplemented with 150mg OPC daily for eight weeks, while the control group was replaced with the placebo. The antioxidant status and lung function were evaluated. Anthropometric values, dietary intake, hematological and biochemical values were also tested. The results showed that the supplementation of OPC significantly decreased the MDA concentration, activity of SOD and plasma LDL-C values(P<0.05), Whereas the TC/HDL-C ratio and plasma TG values, activity of Catalase and GSH-Px also tended to be lower, but without significant differences. However, the FEV1、FVC、FEV1/ FVC and PEFR values did not differ among two groups. In conclusion, OPC could improve the antioxidant status of COPD patients, but the effects on lung function need to further study.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要 Ι
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------- ΙΙ
目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------
圖目錄-----------------------------------------------------------------VΙΙ
表目錄-----------------------------------------------------------------V
第一章 前言------------------------------------------------------------1
第二章 文獻回顧--------------------------------------------------------3
第一節 慢性阻塞性肺疾病定義-----------------------------------------3
第二節 慢性阻塞性肺疾病的診斷與分期---------------------------------5
第三節 慢性阻塞性肺疾病的危險因子-----------------------------------7
第四節 氧化壓力與慢性阻塞性肺疾病-----------------------------------11
(一) 自由基與活性氧之意義------------------------------------------11
(二) 自由基與活性氧之來源------------------------------------------12
(三) 自由基與活性氧對生物體可能之傷害------------------------------15
(四) 人體之抗氧化防禦系統------------------------------------------19
(五) 氧自由基清除劑的分類------------------------------------------20
(六) 抗氧化及其作用機制------------------------------------------21
(七) 抗氧化劑及其作用機制------------------------------------------23
(八) 何謂氧化壓力--------------------------------------------------26
(九) 氧化壓力的成因---------------------------------------- -------26
(十) 氧化壓力對慢性阻塞性肺疾病之影響------------------------------28
(十一)氧化壓力造成肺部受損的機轉-----------------------------------30
第五節 抗氧化維生素對COPD患者氧化狀況之影響--------------------------33
第六節 抗氧化維生素對肺功能的影響------------------------------------35
第七節 葡萄子萃取物-原花色素的來源與結構-----------------------------37
(一)原花色素的來源與分佈-------------------------------------------37
(二)原花色素的化學組成---------------------------------------------37
(三)原花色素的英文簡稱OPC的由來------------------------------------40
(四)原花色素的吸收、代謝和排除-------------------------------------40
第八節 葡萄子萃取物-原花色素的安全性評估-----------------------------42
(一) 動物試驗------------------------------------------------------42
(二) 體外試驗------------------------------------------------------43
第九節 葡萄子萃取物-原花色素的作用-----------------------------------44
(一) 心血管保護的作用----------------------------------------------44
(二) 抑制破壞性酵素的作用------------------------------------------48
(三) 抗腫瘤作用----------------------------------------------------49

第十節 葡萄子萃取物-原花色素的抗氧化作用-----------------------------50
第三章 實驗設計與方法-------------------------------------------------52
第一節 原花色素的來源與服用劑量-------------------------------------52
第二節 受試者的招募及篩選-------------------------------------------53
第三節 實驗設計及分組-----------------------------------------------53
第四節 實驗過程-----------------------------------------------------55
第五節 問卷調查-----------------------------------------------------57
第六節 體位測量-----------------------------------------------------57
第七節 肺功能檢查---------------------------------------------------61
第八節 血液檢查-----------------------------------------------------63
(一)血液學檢查-----------------------------------------------------63
(二)生化學檢查-----------------------------------------------------65
(三)氧化狀態分析---------------------------------------------------68
1.血漿中脂質過氧化物(MDA)之濃度測試-------------------------------68
2.血球中Superoxide dismutase (SOD)活性之測定----------------------71
3.血球中GSH-Px活性之測定------------------------------------------73
4. 血球中Catalase活性之測定---------------------------------------75
5.總蛋白質含量測定------------------------------------------------76
第九節 統計方法-----------------------------------------------------78
第四章 結果-----------------------------------------------------------79
第一節 受試者基本資料分析------------------------------------------79
第二節 受試者體位測量值及血壓狀況-----------------------------------85
第三節 受試者飲食攝取情形-------------------------------------------88
第四節 受試者補充OPC前後之抗氧化狀況--------------------------------92
第五節 受試者補充OPC前後之肺功能檢查--------------------------------95
第六節 受試者之血液及生化測量狀況-----------------------------------97
第七節 受試者補充OPC之測量值的相關性分析----------------------------102

第五章 討論-----------------------------------------------------------107
第一節 受試者基本資料分析------------------------------------------107
第二節 受試者體位測量值及血壓狀況-----------------------------------110
第三節 受試者飲食攝取情形-------------------------------------------111
第四節 受試者補充OPC前後之抗氧化狀況--------------------------------113
第五節 受試者補充OPC前後之肺功能檢查--------------------------------115
第六節 受試者之血液及生化測量狀況-----------------------------------116
第六章 總結-----------------------------------------------------------119
參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------------120

圖目錄
頁次
圖一、 自由基對細胞的傷害----------------------------------18
圖二、 體內抗氧化物質之防禦系統----------------------------25
圖三、 人體中抗氧化劑與促氧化劑間之平衡--------------------27
圖四、 抽煙、氧化壓力和慢性阻塞性肺疾病的關係--------------32
圖五、 生物類黃酮的基本化學結構----------------------------38
圖六、 兒茶酚和異兒茶酚的基本化學結構----------------------38
圖七、 部份原花色素二聚物之不同結構------------------------39
圖八、 研究架構--------------------------------------------54
圖九、 實驗流程圖------------------------------------------56


圖表目錄
頁次
表1 人類有關之氧化傷害情形 --------------------------------15
表2 原花色素能夠抑制的酵素及其作用------------------------48
表3 受試者基本資料分析------------------------------------82
表4 受試者呼吸系統及用藥狀況------------------------------83
表5 受試者抽煙、喝酒及運動狀況--------------------------- 84
表6 受試者之體位測量值及血壓比較(一)----------------------86
表7 受試者之體位測量值及血壓比較(二)----------------------87
表8 受試者補充OPC前後之飲食攝取情形(一)-------------------89
表9 受試者補充OPC前後之飲食攝取情形(二) ------------------90
表10 受試者每日蔬菜及水果攝取頻率--------------------------91
表11 受試者補充OPC前後血中抗氧化狀況及變化情形-------------94
表12 受試者補充OPC前後之肺功能檢查及變化情形---------------96
表13 受試者之血液及生化測量值(一)------------------------99
表14 受試者之血液及生化測量值(二)------------------------100
表15 受試者之血液及生化測量值(三)------------------------101
表16 補充OPC後肺功能與測量值的相關性分析-------------------104
表17 補充OPC後抗氧化狀況與測量值的相關性分析---------------105
表18 補充OPC後與血液及生化測量值的相關性分析---------------106
何莉櫻 (2001) 慢性阻塞性肺疾病COPD。台北榮民總醫院呼吸治療科教學訓練手冊 36-45。
蕭光明 (1996) 慢性阻塞性肺疾病。胸腔醫學 11(4): 230-239。
紀崑山 (1998) 重症照護暨呼吸治療詞彙。文諍出版社,pp.182。
彭瑞鵬 (1996) 慢性阻塞性肺疾診治手冊。胸腔醫學11。
內外科護理學 (1990) 呼吸功能失常病人之評估。第二冊 第十九章。
陳惠英、顏國欽 (1998) 自由基、抗氧化防禦與人體健康。中華營誌 23: 105-121。
何立民、周翌 (2002) 葡萄子與原花色素OPC。日谷國際有限公司。
趙克然、楊毅軍、曹道俊 (2003) 氧自由基與臨床。合記出版社。
行政院衛生署統計處(2002)台灣地區92年國人主要死亡原因。
行政院衛生署(1998)1993-1996國民營養狀況變遷調查結果。
行政院衛生署(2003)老人營養健康狀況調查結果發表會PartⅠ
http://food.doh.gov.tw/index1.htm
行政院衛生署(1998)台灣常見食物圖鑑。
行政院衛生署(1998)台灣地區食品成分資料庫。
呂鋒洲 (1994) 抗氧化酵素之介紹。自由基生物學及醫學 創刊號pp. 1-7。
劉麗娟 (2000) 補充抗氧化維生素C及E對慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者體內抗氧化狀況之影響。
台北醫學院保健營養學研究所碩士論文。
王子慶 (1999) 葡萄子與皮抗氧化性之研究。屏東科技大學食品營養系碩士論文。
高源彬 (2001) 前花青素對Streptozotocin 誘發性糖尿病的影響。國立中興大學生命科學
院碩士在職專班碩士論文。
宋淑全(2002)葡萄殘渣中酚類化合物之特性與生物活性之探討。
中山醫學大學營養科學研究所碩士論文。
鄭世隆 (2001) Microsomal Epoxide hydrolase的基因多型性與罹患慢性阻塞性肺病之關
係。國立臺灣大學臨床醫學研究所碩士論文。
沈鴻銘 (2000) 慢性阻塞性肺臟疾病 (COPD) 與代謝性基因多型性相關之研究。高雄醫學大
學職業安全衛生研究所碩士論文。
柯寘媛 (2002) 木寡醣對老人腸道生理功能之影響。靜宜大學食品營養研究所碩士論文。
莊淑娟 (1996) 台灣市售生藥枸杞之抗炎保肝與抗氧化活性評估。高醫學院天然藥物研究所
碩士論文。
劉伯康 (1997) 數種傳統食用植物抗氧化性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論
文。

Aebi, H. (1983) Catalase. In “Methods of Enzymatic Analysis.” p. 673-686.
Bergmeyer, H. U. Weinhein Deerfield beach. FL: VCH.
American Thoracic Society. (1995) Standards for the diagnosis and care
of patients witduh chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir.
Crit. Care. Med. 152(5pt 2): 77-121.
Bachi, M., Balmoori, J., Bagchi, D., Ray, S. D., Kuszynski, C. & Stohs, S. J.
(1999) Smokeless tobacco, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and antioxidants in
human oral keratinocytes. 26(11-12):1599.
Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Stohs, S.J., Das, D. K., Ray, S.D., Kuszynski, C.A.,
Joshi, S. S. & Preuss, H.G. (2000) Free radical and grape seed
proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease
prevention. Toxicology 148: 187-197.
Bagchi, D., Garg, A. & Krohn, R. (1998) Protective effects of grape seed
proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic
and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation,and peritoneal
macrophage activation in mice. Gen Pharmacol. 30:771-776.
Bagchi, D., Garg, A., Krohn, R. L., Bagchi, D. J., Balmoori, J. & Stohs, S.J.
(1998) Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected
antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and
DNA fragmentation, and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. Gen
Pharmacol. 30(5): 771-776.
Bagchi, D., Krohn, R. L. & Bachi, M. (1997) Oxygen free radical scavenging
abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract
in vitro. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 95: 179-189.
Bagchi, D., Sen, C. K., Ray, S. D., Das, D.K., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H. G. &
Vinson, J. A. (2003) Molecular mechanisms of Cardioprotection by a novel
grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat. Res. 523-524: 87-97.
Bentivegna, S.S. & Whitney, K. M. (2002) Subchronic 3-Month oral toxicity
study of grape seed and grape skin extracts. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40: 1731-
1743.
Bomser, J. A., Singletary, K. W., Wallig, M. A. & Smith, M. A. (1999)
Inhibition of TPA-induced tumor promotion in CD-1 Mouse epidermis by a
polyphenolic fraction from grape seeds. Cancer Lett. 135(2): 151-157.
Bounamidi, R., Prevost, V. & Nouvelot, A. (1998) High protection by grape seed
proanthocyanidins(GSPC) of polyunsaturated fatty acids against UV-C induced
peroxidation. C. R. Acad. Sci. Ⅲ 321(1):31-38
Britton, J. R., Pavord, I. D., Richards, K. A., Knox, A. J. & Wisniewski, A. F.
(1995) Dietary antioxidant vitamin intake and lung function in the general
population. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151: 1383-1387.
Calikoglu, M., Unlu, A., Tamer, L., Eurcan, B. & Atik, U. (2002) The levels of
serum vitamin C, malonyldialdehyde and erythrocyte reduced glutathione in
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in healthy smokers. Clin. Chem.
Lab. Med. 40(10): 1028-1032.
Cantin, A. & Crystal, R. G. (1985) Oxidant, antioxidant and the pathagenesis
of emphysema. Eur. Respir. Dis. Suppl. 139: 7-17.
Carey, I. M., Strachan, D. P. & Cook, D. G. (1998) Effect of change in fresh
fruit consumption on ventilatory function in health British adults. Am. J.
Crit. Care Med. 158: 728-733.
Cavalieri, E. L. & Rogan, E. G. (1995) Central role of radical cations in
metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Xenobiotica. 25:
677-688.
Cendon, S. P., Battlehner, C., Lorenzi Filho, G., Dohlnikoff, M., Pereira, P.
M., Conceicao, G. M., Beppu, O. S. & Saldiva, P. H. (1997) Pulmonary
emphysema induced by passive smoking: an expirmental study in rats. Braz.
J. Med. Biol. Res. 30(10): 1241-7.
Chow, C. K. (1991) Vitamin E and oxidative stress. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 11: 215-
232.Church, D. F. & Pryor, W. A. (1985) Free radical chemistry of cigarette
smoke and its toxicological implications. Environ. Health Perspect. 64: 111-
126.
Cillard, J., Cillard, P. & Cormier, M. (1980) Effect of experimental factors on
the prooxidant behaviour of β-tocopherol. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 57: 255-
261.
Curnutte, J. T. & Babior, B. M. (1987) Chronic granulomatous disease. Adv. Hum.
Genet. 16: 229-297.
Daga, M. K., Chhabra, R., Sharma, B. & Mishra, T. K. (2003) Effects of
exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of oxidants and
antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J. Biosci. 28(1): 7-
11.
Do, B. Q., Garewal, H. S., Clements, N. C., Peng, Y. & Habib, M. P. (1996)
Exhaled ethane and antioxidant vitamin supplements in active smokers.
Chest. 110: 159-164.
Dockery, D. W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E.,
Ferris, B. G. & Speizer, F. E. (1993) An association between air pollution
and mortality in six U.S. Cities. N. Engl. J. Med. 329(24): 1753-1759.
Dow, L., Tracey, M., Villar, A., Coggon, D., Margetts, B. M., Campbell, M. J. &
Holgate, S. T. (1996) Does dietary intake of vitamin C and E influence lung
function in old people? Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 154: 1401-1404.
Draper, H. H., Agarwal, S., Nelson, D. E. V., Wee, J. J., Ghoshal, A. K. &
Farber, E. (1995) Effects of peroxidative stress and age on the
concentration of a deoxyguanosine-malondialdehyde adduct in rat DNA. Lipids
30: 959-961.
Farber, J. L. (1994) Mechanism of cell injury by activated oxygen species.
Enviorn. Health Perspect. 102: 1060-1065.
Favier, A. E. (1995) How to demonstrate the occurrence of an oxidative stress
in human?In “ Analysis of free radicals in biological systems” . Edited
by Favier, A. E., Cadet, J., Kalyanararaman, B., Fontecave, M., Pierre, J.
L. and Birhauser verlag Basel. Switzerland. P: 99-117.
Frankel, E. N. (1991) Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J. Sci. Food Agric.
54: 495-511.
Floyd, R. A. (1990) Role of oxygen free radicals in carcinogtenesis and brain
ischemia FASEB J. 4: 2587-2597.
Gali, H. U., Perchellet, E. M., Gao, X. M., Karchesy, J. J. & Perchellet, J. P.
(1994) Comparison of the inhibitory effects of monomeric, dimeric, and
trimeric procyanidins on the biochemical markers of skin tumor promotion in
mouse epidermis in vivo. Planta Med. 60(3):235-239.
Grievink, L., Smit, H. A., Ocke, M. C., Veer, P. V. & Kromhout, D. (1998)
Dietary intake of antioxidant(pro)-vitamins, respiratory symptoms and
pulmonary function: the MORGEN study. Thorax. 53: 166-177.
Guthrie, A. D. L., Sante, D. P., Antonio, M. C., Fabrizio, C., Giuseppe, R. S.,
Tiziana, I., Matteo, N. & Franco, C. (1995) Vitamin E, C and lipid
peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers.
Atherosclerosis. 112: 91-99.
Habib, M. P., Lavra, J. T., Lisa, C. L., & Harinder, S. G. (1999) Effect of
vitamin E on exhaled ethane in cigarette smokers. Chest. 115: 684-690.
Halliwell, B., Gutterigde, J. M. C. & Cross, C. E. (1992) Free radicals,
antioxidants, and human disease: where are we now ? J. Lab. Clin. Med.
199: 598-620.
Halliwell, B., Murcia, M. A., Chirico, S. & Aruoma, O. I. (1995) Free radicals
and antioxidants in food and in vivo: what they do and how they work.
Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35: 7-20.
Hazlewood, C. & Davies, M. J. (1995) Damage to DNA and RNA by tumour promoter-
derived alkoxyl radicals: an EPR spin trapping study. Biochem. Soc. Trans.
23: 259S.
Imlay, J. A. & Fridovich, I. (1991) Assay of metabolic superoxide production in
Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 6957-6965.
Jacob, R. A. (1994) Nutrition, health and antioxidants. INFORM. 11: 1271-1275.
Kurys, E., Kurys, P., Kurzniar, A. & Kieszko, R. (2001) Analysis of
antioxidant enzyme activity and magnesium level in chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease(COPD). Ann. Univ. Mariae. Curie. Sklodowska. 56: 261-266.
Loft, S., Vistisen, K., Ewert, Z., Tjonneland, A., Overead, K. & Poulsen, H. E.
(1992) Oxidative DNA damage smoking gender and body mass index.
Carcinogenesis. 13: 2441-2447.
Machilin, L. J. & Bendich, A. (1987) Free radical tissue damage: protective
role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J. 1:411-445.
Machlin, L. J. & Bendich, A. (1987) Free radical tissue damage: protective role
of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J. 1: 411-445.
MacNee, W. (2000) oxidants/antioxidants and COPD. Chest 117: 303S-317S.
Macnee, W. & Rahman, I. (1999) Oxidants and antioxidants as therapeutic
targets in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit.
Care. Med. 160: S58-65.McCord, J. M. & Ames, B. N. (1983) Revised methods
for the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 113: 173-215.
Maffei Facino, R., Carini, M., Aldini, G., Berti, F., Rossoni, G., Bombardelli,
E. & Morazzoni, P. (1996) Procyanidines from Vitis
vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury:
antioxidant intervention and/or iron and copper sequestering ability.
Planta Med. 62(2): 495-502.
Maffei Facino R., Carini, M., Aldini, G., Bombardelli, E., Morazzoni, P. &
Morelli, R. (1994) Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme
activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their
capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung. 44(5): 592-601.
Maffei Facino R., Carini, M., Aldini, G., Calloni, M. T., Bombardelli, E. &
Morazzoni, P. (1998) Sparing effect of procyanidins from Vitis vinifea on
vitamin E: in vitro studies. Planta Med. 64(4): 343-347.
Mahmoodi, H. Hadley, M., Chang, Y. X. & Draper, H. H. (1995) Increased
formation and degradation of malondialdehyde-modified proteins under
conditions of peroxidative stress. Lipids. 30: 963-936.
Marklund, S. & Marklund, G. (1974) Involvenment of superoxide anion radical in
autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide
dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem. 47: 469-474.
Meunier, M. T., Villie, F., Jonadet, M., Bastide, J. & Bastide, P. Inhibition
of angiotensin Ⅰconverting enzyme by flavanolic compounds: in vitro and
in vivo studies. Planta Med. 53(1): 12-15.
Meyer, A. S. & Isaksen, A. (1995) Application of enzymes as food antioxidants.
Trends in Food Sci. & Tech. 6: 300-304.
Murray, M. & Pizzorno, J. (1999) Procyanidolic oligomers.
Churchill Livingston. 2: 899-102.
Natella, F., Belelli, F., Gentili, V., Ursini, F. & Scaccini, C. (2002) Grape
seed proanthocyanidins prevent plasma postprandial oxidative stress in
humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 7720-7725.
Neuzil, J. Gebicki, J. M. & Stocker, R. (1993) Radical-induced chain oxidation
of protein and its inhibition by chain-breaking antioxidants. Biochem. J.
293: 601-606.
Niki, E. (1992) Active oxygens and free radicals in biology. J. Jpn. Oli Chem.
Soc. 41(9): 768-773.
Pacht, R., Hisayuki, K., Jeanette, R. M., David, G. C. & Davis, W. B. (1986)
Deficiency of vitamin E in the alveolar fluid of cigarette smokers. J.
Clin. Invest. 77: 789-796.
Paglia, D. E. & Valentine, W. N. (1967) Studies on the qualitative
characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J. Lab. Clin. Med.
70: 159-169.
Poyer, J. L., McCay, P. B., Lai, E. K., Ganzen, E. G. & Davis, E. R. (1980)
Confirmation of assignment of the trichloromethyl radical spin adduct
detected by spin trapping during 13C-carbon tetrachloride metabolism in
vitro and vivo. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 94: 1154-1160.
Prescott, E., Bjerg, A.M., Andersen, P. K., Lange, P. & Vestbo, J. (1997)
Gender difference in smoking effects on lung function and risk of
hospitalization for COPD: results from a Danish longitudinal population
study. Eur. Respir. J. 10(4): 822-827.
Prescott, E., Lang, P. & Vestbo, J. (1999) Socioeconomic status, lung function
and admission to hospital for COPD: results from the Copenhagen City Heart
Study. Eur. Respir. J. 13(5): 1109-1114.
Preuss, H. G., Wallerstedt, D., Talpur, N., Tutuncuoglu, S. O., Echard, B.,
Myers, A., Bui, M. & Bagchi, D. (2000) Effect of niacin-bound chromium
and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of
hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J. Med. 31: 227-246.
Pryor, W. A.,Lightsey, J. W. & Church, D. F. (1982) Reaction of nitrogen
dioxide with alkenes and polyunsaturated fatty acids: addition and
hydrogen abstraction mechanisms. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104: 66-85.
Radon, K., Busching, K., Heinrich, J., Wichmann, H. E., Jorres, R. A.,
Magnussen, H. & Nowak, D. (2002) Passive smoking exposure: a risk factor
for chronic bronchitis and asthma in adults? Chest 122(3): 1086-1090.
Rahman, I., Swarska, E., Henry, M., Stolk, J. & MacNee, W. (2000) Is there any
relationship between plasma antioxidant capacity and lung function in
smokers and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Thorax
55(3): 189-193.
Rahman, I., Skwarska, E. & MacNee, W. (1997) Attenuation of oxidant/antioxidant
imbalance during treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease. Thorax. 52: 565-568.
Rautalahati, M., Vitramo, J., Hankko, J., Heinanen, O. P., Sundvall, J.,
Abanes, D. & Huttunen, I. K. (1997) The effect of alpha-tocopherol and
beta-carotene supplementation on COPD symptoms. AM. J. Resp. Crit. Care
Med. 156: 1447-1452.
Repine, J. E., Bast, A. & Lankhorst, I. (1997) Oxidative stress in chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 156: 341-
357.
Romieu, I. & Trenga, C. (2001) Diet and obstructive lung diseases. Epidemiol.
Rev. 23(2): 268-287.
Sahin, U., Unlu, M., Ozguner, F., Sutcu, R., Akkaya, A. & Delibas, N. (2001)
Lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity in chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: prognostic valueof
malondialdehyde. J. Basic. Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 12(1): 59-68.
Samet, J.M., Dominici, F., Coursac, I. & Zeger, S. L. (2000) Fine particulate
air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S.cities, 1987-1994. N. Engl. J. Med.
343(24): 1742-1749.
Sandy, M. S., Moldeus, P., Ross, D. & Smith, M. T. (1986) Role of redox cycling
and lipid peroxidation in bipyridyl herbicide cytotoxicity.Studies with a
compromised isolated hepatocyte model system. Biochem. Pharmacol. 35: 3095-
3101.
Schwartz, J. & Weiss, S. T. (1994) Relationship between dietary vitamin C
intake and Pulmonary function in the first national Healthy and nutrition
examination survey(NHANES) Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59: 1110-1114.
Shaheen, S. O., Barker, D.J. & Holgate, S.T. (1995) Do lower respiratory tract
infections in early childhood cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 151(5): 1649-1651.
Shahidi, F. & Wanasundara, P. K. J. P. D.(1992) Phenlic antioxidants. Crit.
Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 67-103.
Sies, H. (1991) Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application.
Am. J. Med. 91: 31-38.
Simic, M. G. (1988) Mechanisms of inhibition of free-radical processes in
mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 202: 377-386.
Smith, P., Krohn, R. I., Hermanson, G. T., Mallia, A. K., Gartner, F. H.,
Prorenzano, M. D., Fujimoto, E. K., Goeke, N. M., Olson, B. T. & Klenk, D.
C. (1985) Measurement of protein using bicinchonic acid. Anal. Biochem.
15: 76-85.
Stadtman, E. R. and Oliver, D. N. (1991) Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins.
Physiological consequences. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 2005-2008.
Tabak, C., Smit, H. A., Rasanen, L., Fidanza, F., Menotti, A., Nissinen, A.,
Feskens, E. J. M., Heederik, D. & Kromhout, D. (1999)
Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle
aged men from three European countries. Thorax. 54: 1021-1026.
Tatum, V. L., Changchit, C. & Chow, C. K. (1990) Measurement of malondialdehyde
by highperformance lipid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
Lipids. 25(4): 226-229.
Toth, K. M., Berger, E. M., Buhler, C. J. and Repine, J. E. (1986) Erythrocytes
from cigarette smokers contain more glutathione and catalase and protect
endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide better than do erythrocytes from
non-smokers. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 134: 281-284.
Vies, J., Lasserre, B., Gleye, J. & Declume, C. (1994) Inhibition of
thromboxane A2 biosynthesis in vitro by the main components of Crataegus
oxyacantha(Hawthorn) flower heads. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty
Acids. 50(4): 173-175.
Walda, I. C., Tabak, C., Smit, H. A., Rasanen, L., Fidanza, F., Menotti, A.,
Nissinen, A., Feskens, E. J. & Kromhout, D. (2002) Diet and 20-year
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in middle-aged men from
three European countries. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 56(7): 638-643.
Wang, M. Y. & Liehr, J. G. (1995) Lipid hydroperoxide-induced endogenous DNA
adducts in hamsters: possible mechanism of lipid hydroperoxide-mediated
carcinogenesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 316: 38-46.
Yamakoshi, J., Kataoka, S., Koga, T. & Ariga, T. (1999) Proanthocyanidin-rich
extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic
atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 142(1): 139-
149.
Yamakoshi, J., Saito, M., Kataoka, S.&Kikuchi, M. (2002) Safety evaluation of
proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40:
599-607.
Yu, H., Zhao, X., Xu, G. & Wang, S. E. (2002) Effect of grape seed extracts on
blood lipids in rabbits model with hyperlipidemia. Wei. Sheng Yan Jiu. 31
(2): 114-116.
Yu, H., Zhao, X., Xu, G. & Wang, S. E. (2002) Study of anti-atherosclerosic
effect of grape seed extract and its mechanism. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 31
(4):263-265.
電子全文 電子全文(本篇電子全文限研究生所屬學校校內系統及IP範圍內開放)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔