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研究生:林美禎
研究生(外文):Mei-Chen Lin
論文名稱:山藥澱粉在成長期間理化性質之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study on Physicochemical Properties of Yam Starches during Growth Period
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:山藥澱粉微細結構結晶型態成糊性質熱焓性質
外文關鍵詞:pasting propertiesyam starchmicrostructurecrystalline structurethermal proerties
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本實驗以台農一號山藥、台農二號山藥、大汕山藥及長紅山藥四種不同品種山藥為研究對象,利用掃描式電子顯微鏡、雷射粒徑分析儀、示差熱掃描分析儀、X-ray繞射儀、快速黏度分析儀分析山藥在生長期間(155-260天)澱粉的理化性質之變化。結果顯示,四種品種山藥組成分之粗纖維含量隨著生長期的延長有減少的趨勢,山藥乾物重隨著生長期的延長而有增加的現象。四種品種山藥澱粉之可見直鏈澱粉含量、總直鏈澱粉含量及澱粉含量隨著生長期的延長而有增加的趨勢,而澱粉-脂質複合物含量則隨之降低。台農一號山藥澱粉顆粒略呈三角形之外,其他品種山藥澱粉呈現圓形至橢圓形,且呈現光滑的表面。隨著生長期的增加,四種山藥澱粉顆粒大小均呈現增加的趨勢。四種山藥澱粉的結晶型態均為B-type結晶,且結晶強度隨生長期的延長有增強的趨勢。隨著生長期的增加,澱粉糊化初溫、峰溫、末溫,均呈現逐漸下降的趨勢(p<0.05),但糊化熱焓值,則無顯著差異(p<0.05)。隨著種植時間的延長,山藥澱粉的成糊性質之成糊溫度隨之降低,而尖峰黏度及維持95℃的黏度均增加,黏度回復值除台農一號山藥澱粉增加外,其他品種則為降低。四個品種山藥澱粉之膠體依凝膠長度分類,都屬於軟膠。
The objectives of this study were to investigate four cultivars of yam tubers, including Dioscores alata L. var. Tainung No.1, var. Tainung No.2, var. DaSan, and var. Chanhon, on the changes of physicochemical properties of yam starches at different stages of maturity(155~260 days)during growth . Several techniques including scanning election microscope, particle size laser diffraction analyzer, x-ray diffractometer, differentical scanning calorimetry, and rapid visco analyzer were applied in this experiment. The results showed that crude fiber of yam tuber decreased but increased in dry matter with the increase of growth time. The starch, apparent amylose, and total amylose content of four cultivars of yam tubers increased as growth progressed, but decreased in starch-lipid complex content. In the morphological properties analysis, all yam starch granules showed round to oval shape, but triangle to oval shape in Tainung No.1 tubers. The size of isolated starch granules was increased with the extent of growth time at period of 155-260 days in all yam varieties. The profiles of four cultivars of yam starches showed typical B-type X-ray pattern, and the peak intensity of X-ray diffraction patterns increased slightly during maturity. The onset, peak, and close temperatures of starch gelatinization increased with the increase of growth time, but no difference in gelatinization enthalpy (p<0.05). As the increase of growth time, pasting temperature decreased, but peak viscosity and viscosity after 95℃ holding increased in all yam starches. Setback viscosity of yam starch decreased as growth progressed, except Tainung No.1. The gel of yam starches belonged to soft gel according to the analysis of gel consistency.
壹 、 前言............................................1
貳 、 文獻回顧........................................2
一、根莖類作物.......................................2
二、澱粉之理化性質...................................6
(一)澱粉之直鏈澱粉與支鏈澱粉.........................6
(二) 澱粉顆粒大小....................................7
(三) 澱粉結構結晶度..................................9
(四) 澱粉的糊化及熱焓性質............................11(五)成糊性質........................................18
(六)澱粉膨潤力與溶解度..............................24
(七)膠延展度........................................25
(八)磷含量..........................................26
、研究目的..........................................28
肆 、 材料與方法......................................29
一、 材料.............................................29
(一)生鮮山藥....................................29
(二)山藥澱粉製備................................29
(三)山藥粉......................................31
二、 分析方法.........................................31
(一)一般成份分析....................................31
(二)澱粉及直鏈澱粉含量..............................31
(1)澱粉含量.......................................31
(2)可見直鏈澱粉含量...............................32
(3)總直鏈澱粉含量.................................32
(三)顆粒外觀........................................32
(四)顆粒大小分布....................................33
(五)結晶型態與程度..................................33
(六)磷含量..........................................33
(七)糊化性質........................................34
(八)成糊性質........................................34
(九)澱粉膠延展度....................................35
(十)膨潤力與溶解度..................................35
伍、 結果與討論.......................................36
(一)山藥組成分......................................36
(二)澱粉及直鏈澱粉含量..............................39
(三)澱粉顆粒外觀與粒徑大小..........................42
(四)結晶型態與程度..................................46
(五)澱粉磷含量......................................52
(六)澱粉糊化性質....................................54
(七)澱粉成糊性質....................................57
(八)山藥澱粉之膠延展度..............................60
(九)澱粉之膨潤力及溶解度............................60
陸、結論..............................................65
柒、參考文獻..........................................66
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