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研究生:黃秋熒
研究生(外文):Chiu-Ying Huang
論文名稱:超音波降解製備不同分子量蒟蒻之物化性與流變性及蒟蒻膠對減脂中式香腸品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):Physicochemical Properties of Ultrasound-Degraded Konjac Flour and Their Influences on the Quality of Reduced-Fat Chinese-Style Sausage
指導教授:林國維林國維引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo - Wei Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:官能特性流變減脂中式香腸蒟蒻超音波降解
外文關鍵詞:reduced-fat Chinese-style sausagerheologyultrasound-degradedkonjacsensory properties
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多醣類凝膠會受分子量、濃度及加熱溫度與時間的影響,而具有不同的質地特性。本實驗首先探討經超音波降解之不同分子量蒟蒻膠之流變特性、可擠壓之水分、質地剖面分析、膠強度、pH值及離水率。由結果中得知,蒟蒻分子量降低則蒟蒻膠膠體儲存模數、耗損模數皆會隨之降低,顯示其彈性及黏性會隨分子量變小而降低。K3(3%蒟蒻)膠體可擠壓之水分顯著低於K2(2%蒟蒻),其中K3ND(未降解)及K3S15(降解15 min)可擠壓之水分低於K3S8(降解8 min)。K3各組之膠強度無顯著差異。而K3膠體硬度則隨分子量變小而增加,彈性則隨分子量增加而上升。K3各分子量膠體之離水率於統計上無顯著趨勢,而K3ND及K3S15則較K3S8為佳。
添加3%不同分子量蒟蒻膠於中式減脂香腸中,取代部分脂肪顆粒,添加不同分子量蒟蒻膠之各組pH值較對照組高。各組間的保水性於統計上並無顯著差異。在經過130 ℃,35 min烘烤,C18紅色值(CIE a*)顯著高於其他各試驗組。C18(18%脂肪對照組)之硬度值顯著高於各組,C28(28%脂肪對照組)、S8及S15三組間無顯著差異,而以ND則最低。各組之彈性及內聚力並無顯著差異,咀嚼感各組之間的趨勢與硬度相近,添加不同分子量蒟蒻組較低於C18,顯示各分子量蒟蒻膠可以取代豬背脂,而得到質地相近之產品。
官能品評之結果顯示,不同分子量蒟蒻膠添加於各組香腸其色澤、硬度及多汁性無顯著差異,多汁性分數以C28最高,而C18硬度高於其他各組,顯示各分子量蒟蒻膠可以產生似脂肪顆粒的替代性,多汁性則以C28最高。各組整體接受度相近,皆可為人所接受,數值上以ND和S15最高。於儲存期間,減脂香腸之油脂氧化安定性較C28佳。隨著儲存時間的增長其生菌數有顯著增加,然而於各儲存期間,各組間以C28、C18之生菌數皆較添加蒟蒻組為高,經9週儲存後各試驗組之生菌數介於6.77-7.05 log CFU/g,顯示蒟蒻膠的添加並不會促進微生物生長,含蒟蒻膠減脂香腸應有六至九週之儲存壽命。
由此得知,不同分子量蒟蒻膠添加於減脂香腸中可得到質地與官能特性相近於高脂對照組之產品,且具有合理的儲藏壽命,並可賦予中式香腸健康特性。
This study investigated the pH value, syneresis, expressible moisture, hardness, springiness and gel strength of konjac gels with varying molecular weights. The dynamic rheological characteristics of konjac gels were also determined. Results showed that as molecular weights decreased, storage modulus and loss modulus of konjac gels declined, indicating elasitic and viscous konjac gels. Expressible moisture of K3 (3% konjac) treatments were higher than those of K2 (2% konjac). Gel strength of K3 treatments were similar. In the same concentration (3%), the hardness declined as molecular weight gained. As molecular weight increased, springiness of K3 increased. Syneresis of K3ND (non degraded) and K3S15 (degraded 15 min) were superior than K3S8 (degraded 8 min).
Added konjac gels (3%) with varying molecular weights were manufactured into Chinese-style sausage to partially replace fat particle. The pH of Chinese-style sausage containing konjac gels were higher than controls. No differences in water-holding capacity were noted for C28 and other reduced-fat treatments. No changes in textural springiness and cohesiveness were observed. The hardness and chewiness of Chinese-style sausage containing konjac gels were lower than C18. Shear force values were found not different among all treatments. Results indicated that konjac gels with varying molecular weights could be used to partially replace pork back fat to achieve similar textural properties.
Sensory evaluation revealed that pink color, firmness and juiciness of Chinese-style sausage containing konjac gels were not different, but C18 had the highest firmness. All treatments were found to have similar overall acceptability score, ND and S15 had the highest numerical score. During refrigerated storage, reduced-fat treatments showed lower TBARS value than C28. Total plate counts of all treatments gradually increased with increasing storage time, and ranged 6.77-7.05 log CFU/g after 9 weeks of storage. Incorporation of konjac gel with varying molecular weights at current level showed parallel or superior textural and sensory quality characteristics to high-fat control with reasonable shelf life(~ 6-9 weeks), and contributed health-added value to traditional Chinese-style sausage.
Keywords: ultrasound-degraded, konjac, reduced-fat Chinese-style sausage, sensory properties, rheology
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
謝誌……………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅹ
圖附錄………………………………………………………………………ⅩⅠ
表附錄……………………………………………………………………ⅩⅡ
第一章 前言………………………………………………………………… 1
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………… 3
一、脂肪於食物中的功能特性………………………………………….. 3
二、脂肪替代物…………………………………………………………4
三、膳食纖維的定義及生理功能………………………………………6
四、蒟蒻…………………………………………………………………6
五、蒟蒻的生理功能….………………………………………………7
六、蒟蒻的凝膠機制….………………………………………………9
七、蒟蒻的加工利用…………………………………………………11
八、超音波降解原理及應用…………………………………………13
九、超音波降解大分子的機制原理……………………………………14
十、超音波降解多醣類溶液性質……………………………………17
十一、不同分子量多醣類之黏彈性質………………………………18
十二、不同分子量多醣類對生理機能的影響差異…………………19
十三、食品衛生法規標準……………………………………………21
第三章 實驗目的………………………………………………………22
第四章 材料與方法……………………………………………………23
第一部分:超音波降解蒟蒻膠物性及流變特性…………………23
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………… 23
二、實驗方法……………………………………………………… 23
(一)超音波降解蒟蒻粉…………………………………………23
(二)1%碳酸鈉溶液之配製……………………………………23
(三)蒟蒻膠的製備……………………………………………23
1. 未經降解之蒟蒻精粉…………………………………………23
2. 經降解8 min及15 min蒟蒻製備蒟蒻膠………………25
(四)分析法……………………………………… 25
1. 可擠壓之水分…………………………………………… 25
2. 離水率……………………………………………………… 25
3. 膠強度………………………………………………………… 25
4. 質地剖面分析……………………………………………… 26
5. 動態流變測試………………………………………………… 26
6. 膠體pH值……………………………………………… 26
7. 統計分析…………………………………………………… 26
第二部分:含不同分子量蒟蒻膠的減脂中式香腸之感官特性及儲藏安定性…………………………………………………………… 29
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………29
二、實驗方法……………………………………………………29
(一)蒟蒻膠的製備……………………………………………………… 29
1. 未經降解之蒟蒻精粉………………………………………………29
2. 經降解8 min及15 min蒟蒻製備蒟蒻膠……………………… 30
(二)中式香腸之製備…………………………………………30
(三)分析方法……………………………………………………………33
1. 製成率…………………………………………………………33
2. 組成份………………………………………………………………33
(1)水分…………………………………………………………33
(2)粗脂肪……………………………………………………………33
(3)粗蛋白……………………………………………………………34
3. pH值…………………………………………………………… 34
4. 保水性………………………………………………………… 35
5. 亞硝酸鹽殘留量…………………………………………………35
6. 色澤…………………………………………………………… 35
7. 質地剖面分析………………………………………………… 37
8. 剪切值…………………………………………………………37
9. 感官品評…………………………………………………… 37
10. 硫巴比妥酸鹽試驗……………………….………………… 38
11. 生菌數………………………………………………………… 38
12. 統計分析……………………………………………………… 38
第五章、結果與討論………………………………………………………41
第一部分:超音波降解蒟蒻膠物性及流變特性……………………41
一、pH值…………………………………………………………… 41
二、離水率……………………………………………………………41
三、可擠壓之水分.…………………………………………………41
四、膠強度……………………………………………43
五、質地特性………………………………………………………43
六、膠體流變性質……………………………………………………45
第二部分、含不同分子量蒟蒻膠的減脂中式香腸之感官特性及儲藏安定性…………………………………………………………… 47
一、製成率…………………………………………………47
二、組成分分析……………………………………………49
三、pH值……………………………………………………49
四、保水性…………………………………………… 49
五、亞硝酸鹽殘留量………………………………………51
六、色澤……………………………………………………51
七、質地剖面分析……………………………………………53
八、剪切值………………………………………………………55
九、感官品評……………………………………………55
十、pH值於儲存期間之變化…………………… 57
十一、生菌數……………………………………… 59
十二、油脂氧化酸敗值……………………………… 59
第六章 結論………………………………………… 63
第七章 參考文獻…………………………………… 65
第八章 附錄……………………………………… 79
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