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研究生:陳慧蓉
研究生(外文):Hui-Jung Chen
論文名稱:遊客觀光意象與地方依附感關係之探討-以高雄縣美濃鎮為例
論文名稱(外文):A Relationship Between Tourism Image and Place Attachment:An Exploratory Study in Mei-Nong Town, Taiwan
指導教授:趙芝良趙芝良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Liang Chao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:觀光事業學系研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:觀光意象地方依附感客家文化觀光
外文關鍵詞:Tourism imagePlace attachmentHakka cultural
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高雄縣美濃有濃厚客家原鄉特色,居民親切服務的熱情、環境乾淨,讓造訪的旅客印象深刻,獲得「微笑之鄉」美譽(中央社,2005)。隨著近年來關懷鄉土的意識抬頭,使得人們對於鄉土的親切重新體味,美濃獨特的觀光吸引力來自這些深印在遊客心中的意象,也就是讓遊客深深感受親切的地方。再加上透過客家桐花祭與台灣客家文化藝術節的舉辦與包裝,經由媒體的傳達,帶動客家文化觀光的熱潮。觀光地點意象的塑造,從入口意象至統一的街道招牌,企圖導引了人們對於陌生地點的認識,藉由意象加深地方熟悉感與識別的印象。Baloglu與Brinberg(1997)認為整體觀光意象由認知意象與情感意象所組成,而這種認知與情感的過程可以用來評估整體意象。這是個人與環境交互影響的結果,一種內在心理知覺的評估歷程。人與環境或景觀的關聯,隨著升學、工作或旅遊不斷的與地方產生互動,進而產生對地方的依附(Relph, 1976)。地方依附感源於個人與環境產生特殊的情感與記憶的經驗,並與地方的物理條件和環境,產生情感和評估的知覺反應 (Stokols &; Shumaker, 1981; Williams, Patterson, Roggenbuck & Watson, 1992)。藉由Baloglu 和 McCleary(1999)所建立之觀光意象(Tourism image)模型,本研究嘗試以遊客知覺面為出發點,探討其與地方依附感(Place attachment)內部結構之關聯性,並以結構方程模式(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)進行假設模型驗証。本研究以高雄縣美濃鎮的客家文化觀光為調查地點,於九十五年一月至二月間進行問卷施測。資料經廢卷與偏離值篩檢之後,有效問卷為551份。研究結果顯示,假設一成立:即「觀光意象由認知意象與情感意象所組成」;美濃觀光意象之認知意象以「農村懷舊生活體驗」,情感意象以「放鬆舒適」為影響最大的構面;整體觀光意象二階CFA以「認知意象」為影響最大的構面。假設二成立:即「地方依附感的五個潛在構面同時存在且呈現正向關係」;地方依附感之構面與Hammitt 與 Stewart(1996)所提理論相符合,其面向分別為地方熟悉感(PF)、地方歸屬感(PB)、地方認同感(PI)、地方依賴感(PD)與地方根深蒂固感(PR),且五個面向對整體地方依附感形成呈現正向且直接的關係;整體地方依附感二階CFA以「地方認同感」為影響最大的面向。假設三成立:即「整體觀光意象與整體地方依附感兩者呈現顯著正向且直接的關係」。假設四成立:「認知意象與情感意象會正向的影響地方依附感構面的表現程度」;情感意象對地方認同感呈現直接且正向的關係,認知意象會透過情感意象與對地方認同與地方歸屬感產生最大影響力。根據研究結果,建議地方觀光行銷應以美濃特有的農村懷舊的氣氛為核心價值,並配合意象結構,提升遊客之地方認知,進而建立對地方依附之情感,以確保遊客需求行為與觀光資源間的正向使用關係。
Destination image, individuals who have resided and tourism in a place are more likely to have developed significant relationships with particular as well as with physical attributes of the place and also been hypothesized as a potential predictor of place variables. Items concerning ‘image’ were formed according to descriptors of the cognitive-affective dimensions of place remembrance, and environmental imagery(Lynch, 1960); including the ability to describe or even to map a place based on images, memories, and perceptions of a location’s size, distance, physical attributes and site experiences (Relph, 1976). Recreation resource researchers have traditionally conceptualized the bonding phenomenon between users and resource places as place attachment. Hammitt and Stewart (1996) have proposed a taxonomy of dimensions of emotional bonding with recreation place, in which many of the dimensions of emotional bonding with place are classified follows both degree of bonding intensities and degree of bonding characters. Place attachment process five conceptualized dimensions of place bonding: ‘place familiarity’, ‘place belongingness’, and ‘place identity ’, ‘place dependence, ‘place rootedness’. Moreover, Hou, Lin and Morais (2005) indicated that certain perceives of destination image attractiveness may lead to place attachment. It’s proved this study result the relationship between tourism image and place attachment.
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between tourism image and place bonding based on the survey of tourists visiting the famous Hakka cultural tourism destination, Mei-Nong Town, Taiwan. In this study, cognitive and affective of tourism image were measured by the construct of Baloglu and Brinberg(1997). The five dimensions of place attachment were measured according to Hammitt and Stewart’s theory. The Structural Equation Modeling has been applied to confirm the hypothesized model. A total of 551 questionnaires were collected during January, 2006 ~ February, 2006 in Mei-nong Town, Taiwan.
Results revealed that four conclusions were drawn. (1) Overall image consisted of cognitive and affective image. Also, the factor of ‘cognitive image’ was the biggest predictors of overall destination image compared with the affective image factor. Furthermore, the most influential variable with respect to cognitive image was ‘Nostalgic experience in the countryside’ and ‘Pleasant and relaxing’ toward affective image. (2) In terms of the overall dimensions of place attachment, the factor of ‘Place identity’ was the most influential factor. (3) According to the results of structural equation modeling (SEM), the 2nd order factor of overall tourism image factor had a direct and positive influence upon the 2nd order factor of place attachment. (4) Moreover, the greater proportion of the variation in the cognitive image, the greater influential with the factor of place identify and the factor of place belongingness respect to place attachment dimensions was due to the mediator variables of the affective image.Based on the findings of this study, in terms of management implications, it was suggested that to strength the perceptions toward particular tourism destination through cognitive image and affective image perceived the destination can raise the emotional bonding toward place destination by adding or improving the interpretative service or activity program in tourism destination. Moreover, it was suggested for future study that, in order to predict more accurately the affective attachment toward tourism destination, researchers should take into account the influencing of tourism destination image.
目 錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
內容目錄 Ⅴ
圖目錄 Ⅶ
表目錄 Ⅷ
謝誌 Ⅹ

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機及研究目的 1
第二節 研究問題 3
第三節 研究範圍與對象 3
第四節 名詞定義 4
第五節 研究基本前提 4
第六節 研究限制 5
第二章 文獻回顧
第一節 觀光意象 6
第二節 地方依附感 15
第三節 觀光意象與地方依附感的關係 33
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構與假設 36
第二節 研究對象 38
第三節 研究基地概況 39
第四節 資料分析方法 39
第五節 測量工具 40
第六節 整體適配度的評鑑 49
第四章 資料分析結果
第一節 樣本描述 55
第二節 研究變項測量結果 59
第三節 結構模式與假設檢定 93


第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結果與討論 105
第二節 研究建議 109
第三節 後續研究建議 110
參考文獻
中文文獻 112
英文文獻 114


附錄一 觀光意象自由揭露法調查結果 120
附錄二 正式問卷 127













圖目錄
圖2-1 整體觀光意象的構成 8
圖2-2 地方依附感之構面 27
圖2-3 意象內部結構與地方感之關係 33
圖3-1 假設模型一概念性架構 37
圖4-1 認知意象假設模式 61
圖4-2 認知意象最後模式(CFA) 65
圖4-3 情感意象假設模式 68
圖4-4 情感意象最後模式(CFA) 72
圖4-5 整體觀光意象假設模式 73
圖4-6 整體觀光意象假設模式(簡化) 73
圖4-7 整體觀光意象結構模式之相關係數 75
圖4-8 整體觀光意象二階CFA模式之結果 76
圖4-9 地方依附感假設模式 79
圖4-10 地方依附感一階CFA模式 91
圖4-11 地方依附感二階CFA模式 92
圖4-12 觀光意象與地方依附感之結構模式假設模型 93
圖4-13 觀光意象與地方依附之結構模式迴歸係數 97
圖4-14 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附之結構模式假設模型 98
圖4-15 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附之結構模式迴歸係數 101
圖4-16 模式修飾後假設模型二結構模式之迴歸係數 103
圖5-1 文化觀光遊客類型 111















表目錄
表2-1 意象測量方法比較 14
表2-2 地方依附感意涵 18
表2-3 國內外地方依附感之研究範圍 22
表2-4 地方依附感之二構面問項 29
表2-5 地方依附感之構面(五面向) 30
表3-1 各潛在變項間關係與理論相關表 41
表3-2 觀光意象認知項目表 43
表3-3 觀光意象情感測量問項說明 44
表3-4 地方依附感概念表 45
表3-5 地方依附感問項說明 46
表3-6 基本資料描述表 48
表3-7 旅遊經驗描述表 48
表3-8 本研究使用評鑑指標 54
表4-1 樣本背景與旅遊經驗描述 58
表4-2 認知意象因素分析表 59
表4-3 認知意象整體參數值 62
表4-4 認知意象初始模式整體適配度 63
表4-5 認知意象修飾後整體適配度 64
表4-6 認知意象修飾模式比較 65
表4-7 認知意象CFA建構信度 66
表4-8 認知意象區別效度檢定表 67
表4-9 情感意象整體參數值 68
表4-10 情感意象初始模式整體適配度 69
表4-11 情感意象修飾後整體適配度 71
表4-12 情感意象修飾模式比較 71
表4-13 整體觀光意象參數值 74
表4-14 整體觀光意象適配度 75
表4-15 地方依附感CFA參數值 80
表4-16 地方依附感修正t值後參數值 81
表4-17 地方依附感初始模式整體適配度 83
表4-18 地方依附感修正模式整體適配度 86
表4-19 地方依附感修正模式比較 87
表4-20 地方依附感CFA建構信度 89
表4-21 地方依附感CFA區別效度 90
表4-22 觀光意象與地方依附感之結構模式參數表 95
表4-23 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附感參數值 96
表4-24 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附感參數值 99
表4-25 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附感整體度 100
表4-26 認知意象、情感意象與地方依附感之修正模式比較 102
表4-27 假設模型二之潛在變項之直接效果、間接效果與總效果 104
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