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研究生:蔡容琪
研究生(外文):Lena Tsai
論文名稱:美國中小企業融資制度之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Small Business Finance in the United States
指導教授:黃博怡黃博怡引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:實踐大學
系所名稱:企業創新發展研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:中小企業中小企業融資美國中小企業銀行整併中小企業
外文關鍵詞:small businesssmall business financebank consolidation
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摘要
本文將美國近年內之中小企業融資制度與整體概況作詳細探討,乃鑒於中小企業在取得融資之機率與多寡,對其營運之情形與績效為一主要之關鍵影響因素,因此對中小企業融資之各方面做完整性的研究。除了檢視各資金提供者,包括商業銀行、融資公司等各項來源,在提供融資給予中小企業中所扮演的角色外,也對於政府與相關制法單位在協助中小企業取得融資方面,如何透過中小企業處之各項貸款計畫與輔導與相關法規的制定,來協助中小企業取得資金並維護其利益。
本研究更加探討美國金融環境在近年內之主要變化與其對中小企業融資市場之衝擊。主要之改變之一,為銀行產業整併之趨勢,此現象廣泛的影響了整體金融市場各方面。銀行產業持續不減的集中化,讓市場中著重於提供中小企業融資之小型社區性銀行家數不斷的降低,而由大規模之銀行與銀行控股公司取代,此現象對中小企業授信方面造成影響之可能性勢必也存在,本文則將對此整併潮流之相關議題所深入的研究。此外,中小企業與銀行建立長期之融資關係,有助於企業取得貸款之機率與條件,本論文也對關係融資之重要性與未來趨勢作詳細探討。最後檢視信用評分模型之運用與貸款證券化,在中小企業融資市場中的演變與現況,與其對中小企業融資市場之影響。
Abstract
The purpose of this thesis is to conduct a complete study on the overall finance condition of small businesses in the United States in recent years. Due to the fact that the availability of credit to small businesses is often crucial to their business operations and earnings, this paper focuses on every aspect relative to small business finances. After exploring the major sources of credit, which are commercial banks and finance companies, and the role they play in small business financing, the significance of the U.S. government and how related laws and regulations have provided assistance to small businesses are discussed.
This study also examines the effects of the changes in the financial market in recent years on small business credit availability. One of the most imperative changes is the consolidation of financial institutions, which has affected the financial market in numerous ways. With increasing concentration of financial institutions, the number of small community banks, which were the dominant provider of small business loans, have greatly declined during the last decade, replaced by large-scaled banks and bank holding companies. This phenomenon is likely to cause an impact on the small business financial market, and therefore is widely discussed in this paper. In addition, the importance and future development of financial issues such as relationship banking, credit scoring models and securitization are further explored, especially concerning their impact on small business credit availability.
目次
第一章 緒論………...……….………….…….……….….………..…………………1
第一節 研究背景與動機………..…….…………….………………………………..1
第二節 研究目的………..…..….…………………….……..…..………………3
第三節 研究流程與論文架構…………..…….……….……....……………..…4
第二章 文獻探討………..……………………………..………………..……………7
第一節 國內外中小企業融資制度之文獻回顧………….…..……...…………7
第二節 國內外中小企業融資相關議題之文獻回顧…………..…..…………12
一、金融整併與可貸融資量………………………………………………12
二、關係融資放款模式……………………………..…………..…………15
三、其他…………………………………………………………..………..21
第三章 美國中小企業發展現況…………………………..………………..………25
第一節 中小企業之定義…………….………………..…...………….……….25
第二節 美國中小企業發展現況………..……………….……..……...………28
第四章 美國中小企業融資體系………..……….……………….…………………34
第一節 美國中小企業融資相關法規…..……….……………….……………34
一、 社區再投資法……..……….……………….………………..………34
二、 中小企業法……..……….……………….………………………..…38
三、 1958年中小企業投資法……..……….……………….…….………39
四、 1999退役軍人創業與中小企業發展法……..……….……………..40
第二節 美國政府對中小企業融資之支援體系………………………………40
一、 美國中小企業處之發展…………………..…………………………41
二、 美國中小企業處貸款計畫…………………..………………………45
第三節 美國中小企業金融體系…..…………………..………………………58
第五章 美國中小企業融資市場分析………………………………………………60
第一節 美國中小企業融資之行為分析……………...……..………...………60
第二節 美國金融機構對中小企業之融資現況………………..…..…………68
一、 銀行………….……….……..……………………………..…………68
二、 融資公司………………….…....………………………….…………77
第三節 美國主要中小企業融資機構的運作概況……………....…....………81
一、 Wells Fargo&Company…..……………………………….....………82
二、 Citigroup Inc. ……………….…………………………..…....………87
三、 American Express Centurion Bank...………………..….…....………89
第四節 美國中小企業融資的發展趨勢………………………..……..………91
一、 銀行關係融資放款模式…….…………………………….....………91
二、 信用評分模型之發展與運用…….…....……………………...…..…98
三、 中小企業貸款證券化…………..……………………………..……100
四、 銀行整併對中小企業融資之影響…..…………..…………………103
第六章 結論………………………………………………………..………………109

參考文獻…………………………………………………………..………..………112
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