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研究生:江健豪
研究生(外文):Chien-hao Chiang
論文名稱:儀式:《伊理亞德》中的葬禮
論文名稱(外文):Ritual: Funerals in the Iliad
指導教授:張繼莊張繼莊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kai-chong Cheung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:儀式埋葬葬禮《伊理亞德》英雄
外文關鍵詞:ritualburialfuneralThe Iliadlifedeathhero
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對古希臘人而言,儀式是宗教和神聖的活動,是為了祈求豐收、旅途平安、 平息神明等等而舉行的。
儀式是和溝通、示範及互惠有關的。首先,溝通:儀式嘗試和神明、大地及超自然力量溝通。其次,示範:儀式是用來示範讓人們瞭解及學習它。最後,互惠:儀式試著和神明或超自然力量達成互惠,意思是:「我們奉獻,你回報。」
葬禮是儀式的一種,非常複雜及嚴肅。在古希臘,葬禮必須要經過三個步驟:守靈,典禮的安排,送葬及埋葬。
在《伊理亞德》中,荷馬對死亡的觀點及他對葬禮的描繪大部分符合古希臘的觀點及傳統的實行。然而,在殺戮場景的背後,我們不能忽略《伊理亞德》其主題之一:英雄的生與死。
For the ancient Greeks, ritual, a religious and sacred activity, is performed for harvest, safe journey, appeasing gods and so on.
Ritual is about communication, demonstration and reciprocation. Firstly, communication: ritual tries to communicate with gods, Earth or the supernatural powers. Secondly, demonstration: ritual is demonstrated for people to understand and learn it. Finally, reciprocation: ritual endeavors to reciprocate with gods or the supernatural powers, meaning “we offer, you return.”
Funeral, part of ritual, is very complex and serious. In ancient Greece, a funeral had to go through three processes: the wake, the lay-out of the ceremony, the funeral procession, and the burial.
In the Iliad, Homer’s view of death and his depiction of the funeral mostly match the ancient Greek view and traditional practice. However, behind the scene of killing, we cannot neglect one of the themes in the Iliad: life and death of the hero.
Table of Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..1
Chapter One: Ritual.……..…………………………………………………….........10
1.1 People’s Relationship with Ritual………………………………………............10
1.2 Definition and Function of Ritual……………………………………………….12
1.3 Communication, Demonstration and reciprocation……………………………..15
Chapter Two: The Ancient Greek Funerals…………………………………………22
2.1 Beautiful Death, Will and Inheritance……………………………..……………23
2.2 Process of the Ancient Greek Funeral…………………………………...……...29
Chapter Three: Funerals in the Iliad………………………………………………...50
3.1 The Ancient Greek Conception of Death and Psyche in the Iliad…………..…..50
3.2 Funerals at War……………………………………………….…………………57
3.3 Patroclus’ Funeral……………………………………………………………….62
3.4 Hector’s Funeral…………………………………………………….…………...72
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...78
Works Cited.…………………………………………………………………………83
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Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Trans. J. W. Swain. New York: Free P, 1965.
Eliade, Mircea. “Ritual and Myth.” Grimes 194-200.
Griffin, Jasper. Homer on Life and Death. New York: Oxford UP, 1980.
Grimes, Ronald L. “Ritual Criticism and Infelicitous Performances.” Grimes 279-92.
Guthrie, W.K.C. Orpheus and Greek Religion. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1993.
Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1984.
---. The Odyssey. Trans. Richmond Lattimore. New York: Harper Perennial, 1975.
Hughes, Dennis D. Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece. London: Routledge, 1991.
Humphreys, S. C. The Family, Women and Death. London: Routledge, 1983.
Huntington, Richard and Peter Meecalf. Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991.
Jennings, Theodore. “On Ritual Knowledge.” Grimes 324-34.
Jensen, Adolf E. Myth and Cult among Primitive Peoples. Trans. Marianna Tax Choldin and Wolfgang Weissleder. Chicago: The U of Chicago P, 1973.
Kertzer, David I. “Ritual, Politics, and Power.” Grimes 335-52.
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Loraux, Nicole. The Invention of Athens. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 1986.
Morris, Ian. Burial and Ancient Society: The Rise of the Greek City-State. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987.
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Pantel, Pauline Schmitt and Louise Bruit Zaidman. Religion in the Ancient Greek City. Trans. Paul Cartledge. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.
Parker, Robert. Athenian Religion. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1996.
Powell, Barry B. Classical Myth. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.
Price, Simon. Religions of the Ancient Greeks. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.
Puckle, Bertram S. Funeral Customs: Their Origin and Development. London: T. Werner Laurie LTD, 1926.
Pulleyn, Simon. Prayer in Greek Religion. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1997.
Redfield, James M. Nature and Culture in the Iliad: The Tragedy of Hector. Durham, North Carolina: Duke UP, 1994.
Rehm, Rush. Marriage to Death: The Conflation of Wedding and Funerals in Greek Tragedy. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton UP, 1994.
Richardson, N. J. Greek Religion and Society. Ed. J. V. Muir and P. E. Easterling. New York: Cambridge UP, 1985.
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Tambiah, Stanley J. “A Performative Approach to Ritual.” Grimes 495-510.
Tyrrell, WM. Blake and Frieda S. Brown. Athenian Myths & Institutions. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.
Van Gennep, Arnold. The Rites of Passage. Trans. Monika B. Vizedom and Gabreelle L. Caffee. Chicago: The U of Chicago P, 1960.
Vernant, Jean-Pierre. The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks. Trans. Paula Wissing. Chicago: The U of Chicago P, 1989.
Vivante, Paolo. Homer. London: Yale UP, 1985.
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