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研究生:蔡清陽
研究生(外文):TSAI CHING YANG
論文名稱:服務人員顧客導向對工作滿足、組織承諾與組織公民行為關聯性之研究-以某旅館業為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Relationships among Service-Worker Customer Orientation:Job Satisfaction、Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors-The Case of X Hotel
指導教授:陳協勝陳協勝引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:樹德科技大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:顧客導向工作滿足組織承諾組織公民行為
外文關鍵詞:Customer OrientationJob SatisfactionCommitmentOrganizational Citizenship Behaviors
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周休二日實施,帶動相關旅遊行業的興起,服務人員與顧客之間的互動關係頻繁,服務品質常為該產業所要重視的原因之一,所以服務人員提供良好的服務品質才能吸引顧客前來。因此,本研究以旅館業為主題,其服務人員為研究對象,探討旅館業服務人員的顧客導向是否對工作滿足造成影響,而員工的顧客導向除了與工作滿足有關係外,對組織承諾與組織公民行為是否也有影響,並且在提供服務給顧客時,所接觸時間的長短是否會有所差異,希望能夠藉此探討之。
本研究在顧客導向方面,參考Donavan, Brown and Mowen(2004)的研究,包括:驕寵、需求、個人關係及傳遞四構個面。在工作滿足方面,則參考Spector(1985)的研究,從薪資福利與升遷、工作環境、領導風格和人際關係四構面衡量工作滿足。在組織承諾方面,則參考Meyer, Allen and Smith(1993)的研究,包括:情感、持續、規範三個構面。在組織公民行為方面,則參考Williams and Anderson(1991)的研究,包括:角色內行為、人際利他行為、組織公益行為三個構面。在接觸時間方面,則根據Donavan et al.(2004)將接觸時間分成高接觸組與低接觸組來測量。
本研究以國內某連鎖旅館服務人員為樣本,採問卷調查方式,共計發放200份問卷,有效回收149 份,有效回收率74.5%。利用SPSS10.0及線性方程模式驗證本研究所建構之顧客導向與工作滿足、組織承諾、組織公民行為關係模式所得結果如下:
一、服務人員之顧客導向會正向影響工作滿足
二、服務人員之顧客導向會正向影響組織承諾
三、服務人員之顧客導向對組織承諾上的影響將由工作滿足做部份的調節
四、服務人員之顧客導向會正向影響組織公民行為
五、服務人員之顧客導向對組織公民行為上的影響將由工作滿足做部份的調節
六、服務人員與顧客接觸時間長短對整體模式僅部份影響

最後,本研究根據以上發現,對實務界及未來相關主題之研究方向,提出一些建議。

關鍵字:顧客導向、工作滿足、組織承諾、組織公民行為
Tourism industries rise and develop, the relationship between service-workers and customers is frequent. Service-quality is an important factor of tourism industries. The good quality of service provided by the service-workers can attract customers. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of service-worker’s customer orientation and job satisfaction, and customer orientation will influence the commitment and organizational citizenship behaviors. When Service-workers satisfy customer’s requirement, the contact time has different effect on the study. We hope to discuss.
In regarding to customer orientation, this study refers to the research of Donavan, Brown and Mowen(2004)includes four dimensions, such as pamper, needs, personal relationship and deliver. In respect of Job Satisfaction , this study refers to the research of Spector(1985)includes four dimensions, such as salary and welfare, working environment , guidance and relationship. In regarding to commitment, this study refers to the research of Meyer, Allen and Smith(1993)includes three dimensions, such as affective, continuance and normative. In regarding to organizational citizenship behaviors, his study refers to the research of Williams and Anderson(1991)includes three dimensions, such as in-role behavior(IRB), OCB-individuals(OCBI) and OCB-organization(OCBO). In regarding to contact time, this study refers to the research of Donavan, et al.(2004), it divided the contact time into two parts that included high-customer-contact positions and low-customer-contact positions.
Convenience sampling method was applied to select 200 service-workers from X hotel in Taiwan to answer the questionnaire. Of 149 responses were usable. Structural Equation Models were used to test the proposed hypotheses. SPSS10.0 software was applied as the analyzing tool in this study. The results showed that: 1. Customer orientation had positive impact on job satisfaction; 2. Customer orientation had positive impact on commitment; 3. Job satisfaction have significantly positive influence to customer orientation and commitment; 4. Customer orientation had positive impact on organizational citizenship behaviors;5. Job satisfaction have significantly positive influence to customer orientation and organizational citizenship behaviors; 6. Contact time only had positive impact on a part of model.
According to the result, we recommend some suggestions to both the practitioners and the academics.
Keyword:Customer Orientation, Job Satisfaction, Commitment, Organizational
Citizenship Behaviors
目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅱ
誌謝…………………………………………………………………….IV
目錄……………………………………………………………………..V
表目錄…………………………………………………………………VII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..IX
壹、緒論………………………………………………………………….1
一、研究背景與動機…………………………………………………………..1
二、研究目的…………………………………………………………………..3
三、研究內容與流程…………………………………………………………..5
四、論文架構…………………………………………………………………..6
貳、文獻探討…………………………………………………………….7
一、顧客導向…………………………………………………………………..7
二、工作滿足…………………………………………………………………12
三、組織承諾…………………………………………………………………16
四、組織公民行為……………………………………………………………21
五、顧客導向、工作滿足、組織承諾與組織公民行為之相關研究………26
參、研究方法…………………………………………………………...28
一、研究架構…………………………………………………………………28
二、研究變數與衡量…………………………………………………………29
三、研究假說…………………………………………………………………34
四、研究設計…………………………………………………………………37
五、研究工具與分析方法……………………………………………………39
肆、研究結果……………………………………………………………41
一、問卷回收狀況……………………………………………………………41
二、信度與效度分析…………………………………………………………42
三、樣本特性分析……………………………………………………………49
四、各構面問項之敘述分析…………………………………………………51
五、個人屬性與各研究變項之變異性分析…………………………………58
六、各變項之相關分析………………………………………………………63
七、迴歸分析…………………………………………………………………70
八、路徑分析…………………………………………………………………73
九、顧客導向與工作滿足之關聯性驗證……………………………………77
伍、結論與建議…………………………………………………………78
一、結論………………………………………………………………………78
二、管理意涵與實務建議……………………………………………………81
三、研究貢獻…………………………………………………………………81
四、 研究限制與後續研究建議……………………………………………..82
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..84
中文參考文獻…………………………………………………………………..84
英文參考文獻…………………………………………………………………..86
附錄一 服務人員之問卷……………………………………………....93

























表目錄
表 2-1 各學者對顧客導向的定義………………………………………………....8
表 2-1 各學者對顧客導向的定義(續)……………………………………………..9
表 2-2 學者對「工作滿足」之定義彙整表………………………………………12
表 2-2 學者對「工作滿足」之定義彙整表(續)………………………………....13
表 2-3 影響工作滿足的相關因素………………………………………………...14
表 2-4 各學者對組織承諾的定義………………………………………………...16
表 2-4 各學者對組織承諾的定義(續)…………………………………………....17
表 2-5 組織承諾的衡量…………………………………………………………...19
表 2-5 組織承諾的衡量(續)……………………………………………………....20
表 2-6 組織公民行為相關定義…………………………………………………..21
表 2-6 組織公民行為相關定義(續)……………………………………………....22
表 2-7 組織公民行為構面分類…………………………………………………..23
表 3-1 研究變項之定義、構面與操作性定義…………………………………..33
表 3-2 連鎖飯店台灣設立點…………………………………………………......37
表 4-1 各變數的構面之信度分析……………………………………………......42
表 4-2 顧客導向的測量模式CFA結果摘要…………………………………....44
表 4-3 工作滿足的測量模式CFA結果摘要……………………………………45
表 4-4 組織承諾的測量模式CFA結果摘要……………………………………45
表 4-4 組織承諾的測量模式CFA結果摘要(續)……………………………….46
表 4-5 組織公民行為的測量模式CFA結果摘要………………………………46
表 4-5 組織公民行為的測量模式CFA結果摘要(續)………………………….47
表 4-6 信念結構的信效度分析………………………………………………….48
表 4-7 本研究樣本基本資料表(n=149)……………………………………….....49
表 4-7 本研究樣本基本資料表(n=149)(續)……………………………………..50
表 4-8 顧客導向各構面的敘述統計…………………………………………….51
表 4-9 顧客導向構面各問項之平均數與標準差……………………………….52
表 4-9 顧客導向構面各問項之平均數與標準差(續)…………………………..52
表 4-10 工作滿足各構面的敘述統計…………………………………………….53
表 4-11 工作滿足構面各問項之平均數與標準差……………………………….53
表 4-12 組織承諾各構面的敘述統計…………………………………………….54
表 4-13 組織承諾構面各問項之平均數與標準差……………………………….54
表 4-13 組織承諾構面各問項之平均數與標準差(續)…………………………..55
表 4-14 組織公民行為各構面的敘述統計…………………………………….....56
表 4-15 組織公民行為構面各問項之平均數與標準差………………………….56
表 4-16 不同「性別」之服務人員在整體構面之差異………………………….58
表 4-17 不同「年齡」之服務人員在整體構面之差異………………………….59
表 4-18 不同「最高學歷」之服務人員在整體構面之差異…………………….59
表 4-19 不同「婚姻狀況」之服務人員在整體構面之差異……………………….60
表 4-20 不同「年資」之服務人員在整體構面之差異………………………….61
表 4-21 不同「職位」之服務人員在整體構面之差異…………………………..61
表 4-22 不同「薪資所得」之服務人員在整體構面之差異…………………….62
表 4-23 不同「接觸時間」之服務人員在整體構面之差異…………………….63
表 4-24 服務人員顧客導向對工作滿足、組織承諾與組織公民行為之相關性.64
表 4-25 顧客導向與工作滿足之相關性………………………………………….65
表 4-26 顧客導向與組織承諾之相關性………………………………………….66
表 4-27 顧客導向與組織公民行為之相關性…………………………………….66
表 4-28 工作滿足與組織承諾之相關性………………………………………….67
表 4-29 工作滿足與組織公民行為之相關性…………………………………….68
表 4-30 服務人員顧客導向對工作滿足、組織承諾與組織公民行為之迴歸分析.69
表 4-31 工作滿足與組織承諾及組織公民行為之迴歸分析…………………….70
表 4-32 顧客導向與工作滿足對組織承諾及組織公民行為之迴歸分析……….71
表 4-33 接觸時間高低與各構面間之迴歸分析………………………………….72
表 4-34 服務人員顧客導向對工作滿足、組織承諾與組織公民行為的整體配適度指標………………………………………………………………………74
表 4-35 潛在變數間的影響效果………………………………………………….75
表 4-36 LISREL 模式分析結果…………………………………………………76
表 5-1 本研究假說之檢定結果彙總表………………………………………….78

















圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程圖……………………………………………………………………5
圖2-1 新的行銷觀念:顧客目標……………………………………………………7
圖3-1 概念性架構圖………………………………………………………………..28
圖4-1 LISREL結構圖……………………………………………………………..73
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