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研究生:邱偵祐
研究生(外文):Chen-Yu Chiu
論文名稱:奈米級三次元接觸式量測探頭之研製
論文名稱(外文):Development of a 3D Nano Touch Trigger Probe
指導教授:朱志良朱志良引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Liang Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:動態觸發式探頭三次元量測儀DVD讀取頭
外文關鍵詞:Touch trigger probeCoordinate Measuring MachineDVD pick-up head
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本研究主要目的是發展一低成本、高精度之三次元接觸式量測探頭(Touch trigger probe)。接觸式量測探頭的研製一般主要分成三大部分,分別為探棒、懸吊機構與感測器。於探棒的設計上,選用市售的紅寶石探棒,依據所選擇使用的探棒特性,藉由完全彈性碰撞理論計算出接觸力的影響,做為設計懸吊機構剛性的依據。而於懸吊機構的設計上,本文採用微細樑設計,針對所選擇特定的接觸力來設計微細樑長、寬、厚度與懸吊機構的相關尺寸,並藉由解析公式的理論推導、有限元素軟體ANSYS的分析驗證與實驗的測試結果,可證明所完成的懸吊機構具有抑制三自由度運動的特性,降低了感測器的量測誤差,同時於搭配所選擇的探棒長度後,使整體接觸式量測探頭具各方向等剛性特性,進一步減少了量測探頭觸發時因剛性不同所造成的預行程(Pre-travel)誤差。
感測器的研製上,則採用市售DVD光碟機內之光學讀取頭(Pick-up head)改良研製而成的光學式位移與角度感測器,作為接觸式量測探頭的感測裝置,當接觸式量測探頭的探棒前端圓球碰觸到待測物表面,所造成的接觸力將會經由探棒傳達至懸吊機構,並使懸吊機構中連接探棒的剛體產生位移量或是角度偏擺量,此時經由感測器予以紀錄出此位移量或是角度偏擺量,當位移量或是角度偏擺量達到觸發門檻(Trigger threshold)時將產生一觸發訊號,以作為擷取三軸定位平台各軸向位移量的依據。
將研製而成的接觸式量測探頭,經實驗驗證後,具有±3μm*±3μm*3μm的X/Y/Z軸量測範圍、不確定度為91.8nm,任意方向觸發時的作用力皆小於0.1mN。
The main purpose of this study is to develop a three dimensional touch trigger probe with low cost and high precision. The development of touch trigger probe is consisted of three parts, which are the stylus with a tip ball, suspension mechanism, and sensors. The design of the touch trigger probe used a ruby ball, and took into consideration of the stylus features to compute the contact force based on the complete elastic collision theory, so as to be used as the reference in the design of stiffness for the suspension mechanism. For the design of the suspension mechanism, this study used micro beam design, and determined the length, width, and thickness of the micro beam, and the dimension of the suspension mechanism, according to the selected contact forces. The test results were analyzed and validated with finite element software ANSYS and the theoretic deduction of analytical formula. It proved that the suspension mechanism has the feature of inhibiting three degree of freedom, lowering the measurement error of the sensor, improving equal stiffness of the entire touch trigger probe with the selected probe length, and reducing the pre-travel error of the touch trigger probe due to different stiffness. The development of the sensor used optical displacement and angular sensor improved from the pick-up head inside the DVD player available on the market, and used it as the sensory device for the touch trigger probe. When the probe tip touches the surface of the object to be tested, the resulting contact force would be transmitted from the probe to the suspension mechanism, and lead to displacement or angular deviation generated by the stiff body connected to the probe, and the sensor records the displacement or angular deviation, and generates a touch-off signal when the deviation reaches the trigger threshold. It would be used as the reference for each axial displacement of the three-axis positioning platform.
Based on the experiment, the X/Y/Z measuring range of the touch trigger probe is ±3um*±3um*3um, the measuring uncertainty is 91.8nm, probing force is smaller than 0.1mN.
目 次
摘要 iv
英文摘要 v
誌謝 vii
目次 viii
表目錄 x
圖目錄 xi
第一章 緒論1
1.1 研究動機與目的1
1.2 研究背景與文獻回顧2
1.3 研究方法與論文大綱9
第二章 結構設計與分析11
2.1 簡介 11
2.2 完全彈性碰撞理論11
2.3 懸吊機構設計與分析14
2.3.1 探棒的選用準則14
2.3.2 接觸力設計準則15
2.3.3 剛性設計準則17
2.3.4 自然頻率設計準則17
2.3.5 靜態方程式 17
2.3.6 微細樑與觸發條件的選取24
2.3.7 懸吊機構設計準則25
2.4 有限元素分析 27
2.5 懸吊機構加工與組裝32
第三章 光學感測器之研製33
3.1 簡介 33
3.2 雷射聚焦探頭系統簡介33
3.2.1 讀取頭關鍵元件介紹34
3.2.2 位移感測器應用原理與光學聚焦方式探討36
3.2.3 S曲線的量測架設38
3.2.4 S曲線實際量測與評估 39
3.3 光學式角度感測器之簡介41
3.3.1 量測原理41
3.3.2 四象限感測器42
3.3.1 角度感測器量測架設與實驗結果43
3.4 接觸式量測探頭之組裝49
第四章 微力檢測器之研製51
4.1 簡介51
4.2 微力檢測器設計、分析與製作51
4.3 實驗架設與實驗結果54
第五章 實驗架設與測試結果57
5.1 實驗架測與測試結果57
5.1.1 單方向重複性62
5.1.2 預行程變化量63
5.1.3 觸發作用力67
5.1.4 動態量測實驗70
第六章 結論72
參考文獻 73
參考文獻
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