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研究生:陳映竹
研究生(外文):Ying-Chu Chen
論文名稱:國民小學初任英語教師之英語教學信念研究
論文名稱(外文):Novice Elementary English Teachers' Beliefs on Teaching English as a Foreign Language
指導教授:周碩貴周碩貴引用關係黃文禪黃文禪引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Guey JoeWen-Shann Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:243
中文關鍵詞:小學英語教育初任英語教師教師信念
外文關鍵詞:elementary English educationnovice English teacherteachers' beliefs
相關次數:
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自從台灣於2001年在國小開始實施英語教學開始,各種有關國小英語教學的研究如雨後春筍般蓬勃發展。在教師的信念研究方面,也有不少研究者投入此一領域。然而至目前為止,對於初任教師的英語教學信念之研究尚有不足。因此,本研究特別對五位剛在台南市完成實習的初任英語教師做開放式的訪談,以期對他們的認知能有整體性的了解。分析的重點有三:一是瞭解國小初任英語教師對國小英語教育的整體性看法;二為辨認受訪者對於國小英語教學之「教學」(pedagogical)觀點;三是找出受訪者在實習期間所遭遇到的困難以及其解決之道。
本研究的主要發現如下所述。針對第一個研究問題,五位初任教師認為國小英語教育的主要目的在於:(一)提供英語環境, (二)培養興趣, (三)發展基本的溝通能力。在第二個研究問題方面,受訪者的英語教學觀點主要包括:(一)「由底而上」(bottom-up)的建構學生的英語能力, (二)依學生的特性做調整, (三)具體多元,以及 (四)互動式學習。在第三個研究問題上,受訪者在實習期間所面臨的主要問題及其解決之道為:(一)針對雙峰效應調整教學, (二)在現實與理想的衝突之下妥協,以及(三)在被動接受實習學校安排下爭取有限的權益。
本研究提出四點作結,分別是(一)初任教師的英語教學是其教學信念與外在限制之交互作用下的結果, (二)初任教師與熟手教師的英語教學信念大致相符,但在細部上仍有差異, (三)初任教師的英語教學知識與技能仍有待發展, (四)對初任教師所安排的實習課程並不適切。
本研究針對師資培育機構、提供實習的國小、熟手英語教師以及初任英語教師提出數點建議,希望能對師資培訓課程的改進上有所助益,也期待能使實習課程的安排更為適切、順利。
Since English became a part of elementary curricula in 2001, growing attention from the researchers has been attracted to elementary English education. While different studies are carried out to make the picture of elementary English teachers’ knowledge and beliefs clearer, the instructional beliefs of the novice elementary English teachers are relatively vague. In order to have an in-depth understanding about the language instructional beliefs of elementary English novice teachers, open-ended interviews are used in this research to explore (a) their perceptions about elementary English education, (b) the underlying pedagogical beliefs on teaching English as a foreign language, and (c) the problems and difficulties faced by the novice teachers together with the strategies employed to overcome the difficulties.
The findings of this study are summarized as follows. First, three major themes were identified to characterize novice participants’ beliefs about elementary English education: (a) to provide an accessible language environment, (b) to cultivate pupils’ interest, and (c) to develop basic communication for daily use. Regarding the second research question, four central ideas are held by the novice participants to form the pedagogical beliefs on teaching English as a foreign language: (a) to construct a bottom up instruction, (b) to adapt to learners’ needs, (c) to have concrete & multidimensional teaching material, and (d) interactive learning. In terms of the problems faced and the strategies employed, the participants should (a) adjust classroom instruction in hope of smoothing the impact of twin-peak effect; (b) make a compromise in order to bring close the gap between ideal and reality; and (c) accept the internship arrangement

passively with little efforts made to fend for their benefits in hope of extending their English instructional experience.
This study concludes that (a) the novice participants’ English instructional practice is the result of the interaction between their beliefs and constraints, (b) an overall consistency is found between the novice participants and the experienced teachers with minor differences, (c) the novice participants’ pedagogical knowledge needs further developing, (d) the novice participants’ internship program is insufficient.
Suggestions to the teacher educators, the elementary schools, the elementary English teachers and the novice elementary English teachers are provided to improve the courses of elementary teacher education as well as to ensure a smoother and more effective internship program.
Abstract (Chinese) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Abstract (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

Chapter I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Purposes of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Statement of Research Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Limitations of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Chapter II. Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
History of Research on Teachers’ Beliefs and Knowledge . . . . . . . . 10
Process-Product Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Decision-Making Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Hermeneutic Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Studies of Teachers’ Beliefs on Language Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
The Factors in Shaping Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs . . . . . . 21
Schooling Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The Experience of Teacher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Teaching Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Life Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Instructional Beliefs and Classroom Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Change of Beliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Studies of Elementary English Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs in Taiwan . . 40
Elementary English Instruction in Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Chapter III. Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Interview Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Data Collection Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Data Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Lesson Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Chapter IV. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
The Novice Elementary English Teachers’ Beliefs about
the Policy of Elementary English Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Assessable Language Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Interest Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Basic Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
The Novice Elementary English Teachers’ Beliefs about Classroom
Instruction in Teaching English as a Foreign Language . . . . . . 97
Brick Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Learner Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Concrete & Multidimensional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Interactive Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Problems Faced by the Novice Teachers during Their Internship and the
Strategies They Employ to Overcome the Problems . . . . 132
Twin-Peak Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Ideal vs. Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Internship Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Chapter V. Discussions and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Findings and Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Novice Teachers’ Beliefs about the Policy of
Elementary English Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Novice Teachers’ Beliefs about Teaching English as a
Foreign Language in the Elementary Classroom . . 171
Problems Faced by the Novice Teachers during Their Internship and
the Strategies They Employ to Overcome the Problems . 178
Issues Related to the Findings and Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
The Novice Participants’ Instruction Is the Result of the Interaction
between Their Beliefs and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
An Overall Consistency Is Found between the Novice Participants
and the Experienced Teachers with Minor Differences . 187
The Novice Teacher Participants’ Pedagogical Knowledge
Needs Further Developing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
The Novice Participants’ Internship Program Is Insufficient . . . . . . . 188
Implications and Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
To Teacher Educators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
To Elementary Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
To Elementary English Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
To Novice Elementary English Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Suggestions for Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Appendixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Appendix A Questions for Background Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Appendix B Questions for Main Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Appendix C The Interview Guide Used by the Researcher . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Appendix D Chinese Originals of the Quotations
From Interview Transcripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Appendix E Lesson Plans of Teacher I and Teacher II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
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