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研究生:林慧娟
研究生(外文):Hui-Chuan Lin
論文名稱:台灣地區老人安養市場多元化經營策略可行性之評估
論文名稱(外文):Marketing Analyses and Research in Development of Diversification Strategy Approach in Elderly Healthcare of Taiwan
指導教授:鄭文輝鄭文輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hui Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:經營管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:多元化經營策略安養休閒機構老人安養
外文關鍵詞:diversification management strategyhealthcare institutionelderly healthcare
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老年人口增加,以老人為消費主體時代的來臨,政府勞退新制上路,提前退休潮來臨,未來以老人為市場的產業將能蓬勃發展,老人養護及長期照護機構也隨著迅速增多。然而新生人口逐漸降低,少子化趨勢,導致勞動力不足、人口老化、扶養負擔過重等社會經濟問題,青年在經濟上是否能照顧其雙親成了未來的隱憂。以老人為對象的產業將逐漸呈現壓力和困境,許多有意從事老人產業之投資必須作慎重之評估和分析,找出永續經營老人之模式。

本研究分別以探討新的經營模式與策略和可行性市場評估兩大主題。針對老人安養建構創新經營模式,讓其更符合未來老人的需求,讓經營者更具競爭力。研究中以「文獻分析法」方式建立模擬的「多元化經營之理想退休中心」,及以「修正式問卷調查法」方式評估其市場之可行性。本研究研擬的「老人安養多元化經營策略」,是以健康管理、永續教育和休閒創新,所組合,主要重點有:以尊嚴及價值為目標之退休小鎮;以再進修模式,開創退休族群潛在特質及自我能力;以類似club med旅遊業的經營方式,延伸世界各點,短期旅遊及相互交換居住方式拓展退休族群國際視野;以增加戶外休閒遊憩之場所,提供年輕人休閒,老人工作機會,儲蓄未來的安養基金;以專業照護人員外,更推展互相照護,和尖端科技儀器之應用;以居民自治經營模式,自我創造新構想,讓每一個居民沒有生病的機會,健康終老,老有所為。更改過去單一模式之經營理念,「發展多元化經營策略」研究。

問卷調查是以人工方式進行訪談問卷,共接洽102人。根據假設一的統計上結論「年齡」及「有無子女」和「是否會住進理想中類似安養休閒之機構」有關聯,換言之,較年輕者和沒有子女者是未來主要的客戶。根據假設二上統計的結論,本研究所擬構的「多元化經營之理想退休中心」是符合未來族群理想中的退休生活方式,因此許多欲投資老人產業之企業要重新定義老人機構及安養的藍圖,多元化經營才能夠永續經營。
With the increase of the population of the aged and the realization of the government’s new retirement system for workers, the era in which the aged are the main customers has declared its coming. The industries orienting their markets to the aged will be able to flourish, and the institutions for elderly healthcare and long-term placement will hence increase. On the other hand, owing to the decrease of the newborn, the trend of less children, the deficiency of labor, the aging of the people and the overload of supporting the aged, whether the youth can support their old parents economically or not will become a potential problem in the future. The industries orienting their markets to the aged will thus have pressure and predicament. Therefore, the investment on the industries should be seriously analyzed and evaluated to find the pattern suitable for forever running.

Evaluating the possibilities of the market and researching on new management patterns and strategies, this study aims to help establish new management patterns for elderly healthcare to suit the aged’s need in the future and make the managers become more competitive. “Literature search approach” is applied in this study to build a “virtual ideal retirement center with diversification management strategy”; and “modified in-depch interview approach”, to evaluate the possibility of the market. “The diversification management strategy for elderly healthcare” designed in this study is based on health management, sustaintable education and innovative recreation. Different from the single-patterned management in the past, its main points include a town heading for dignity and value, further studying for the retired to develop their potential and ability, residence exchange and short trip to every part of the world to enrich the retired’s international view through the management policy like “club med,” increasing the outdoor recreation places to provide the youth places to refresh and the aged working opportunities to get their healthcare foundation, promoting the care exchange system with the assistance of the professional careers and the application of modern technological equipments, and the residents’ autonomy which enables them to generate new idea for themselves and be more healthier to do what they want to do .

The questionnaires were distributed to 102 persons. According to the statistic conclusion of postulation I, “age” and “with or without children” are related to “move into the similar ideal healthcare center or not.” That is, the younger and those without children will be the main customers in the future. According to the statistic conclusion of postulation II, “the ideal retirement center with diversification management”, designed in this study, will fit the ideal life style of the retired in the future. Therefore, industrialists planning to invest the aged-oriented industrials should re-design their blueprints so that the diversification management can work forever.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………..…I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………II
目錄………………………………………………………………...IV
表次………………………………………………………………...VI
圖次………………………………………………………………..VII
第一章 緒論…………………………………………….………….1
第一節 研究動機……………………………………..…5
第二節 研究目的與內容………………………………..6
第三節 研究範圍與內容…………………………..……8
第四節 研究方法與步驟………………………………11
第五節 研究流程………………………………………13
第二章 文獻探討…………… ………………………………14
第一節 市場調查相關文獻探討………………………14
第二節 多元化經營策略的相關文獻…………………16
第三節 國內外安養機構的分析和文獻探討…………18
第四節 國外安養機構之探討分析……………………22
第五節 國內老人安養問題之探討分析………………26
第三章 研究方法與理論基礎……………………………………29
第一節 研究方法………………………………………29
第二節 理論基礎………………………………………30
第三節 研究架構………………………………………34
第四節 研究設計………………………………………35
第五節 樣本設計與資料分析…………………………39
第四章 研究結果…………………………………………………43
第一節 經營策略的內容擬構…………………………43
第二節 第一階段資料回收……………………………47
第三節 第二階段資料分析……………………………48
第四節 結論……………………………………………74
第五章 討論與建議………………………………………………78
第一節 退休模式的重新規劃…………………………78
第二節 創新多元化經營模式之可行性………………82
參考文獻……………………………………………………………85
附錄…………………………………………………………………89
附錄一 退休後理想生活環境深問卷調查項目表格…..90
A.中文
a. 期刊文章:
曹源龍。專題報導:[銀髮產業之展望]。逢甲人雜誌,94期。

b. 研究報告:
莊朝榮(民93)。老人福利與照顧相關產業推廣及營業登記之研究。內政部委託研究報告,27。
黃源協(民92)。老人福利機構公設民營可行性評估之研究。內政部委託研究報告,81。

c.專書及論文:
林佳蓉(民90)。老人生活滿意模式之研究,國立體育學院體育研究所。未出版碩士論文。
邱俊村(民91)。退休社區之老人休閒環境研究---以「以潤福生活新象」為例,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理研究所。台中縣,未出版碩士論文。
羅芳蘭(民91)。會計師事務所經營策略之研究---以台灣區會計師事務所為實證,中原大學會計學系研究所。未出版碩士論文。

d.網路報導:
中市拾荒者首創變成資源回收業者 (民94年8月18日) 。中廣新聞網。民94年8月27日,取自:http://tw.news.yahoo.com/050818/4/26wut.html
家有一老、如有一寶、老年人力資源急待開發 (民94年8月17日) 。中廣新聞網。民94年8月10日,取自:http://tw.news.yahoo.com/050817/4/26q5q.html
唐華(民90)。多元化經營的戰略目標與風險(2001-08-21)。中華企業內刊網。民94年8月25日,取自:http://www.emkt.com.cn/article/51/5189.html
余來文(民94)。企業核心競爭力延伸:多元化經營戰略(2005-5-15)。中國製造業信息化門戶。民94年8月25日,取自:http://www.e-works.net.cn/ewk2004/ewkArticles/416/Article29649.htm

B.英文
a.References to periodical
Journal article
Barney, J.B. ( 1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), pp. 99-120.
DeLeeuw, E.D. (2001). Reducing Missing Data in Surveys: An Overview of Methods. Quality &Quantity 35, 147-160.
Eckhard, L. (2005). Corporate diversification: identifying new businesses systematically in the diversified firm. Technovation 25, 697–709.
Ellen, V. K., Hans, C.M., Pieternel, L. (2005). Consumer research in the early stages of new product development: a critical review of methods and techniques. Food Quality and Preference, 16 (2005) 181–201
José, E., Joan, P. (2004). Using a Multimethod Approach to Research Enterprise Systems Implementations. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Volume 2 Issue 2 2004 (69-82)
Malcolm, P.C. (2003). The process of mediated aging-in-place:a theoretically and empirically based model. Social Science & Medicine, 57 (2003) 1077–1090.

Conference Paper
Larson, B.L. (2003). Issues and Challenges facing Aging-in-Place in Hawaii, Aging in Place: How to Cope. A Conference for Condo, Co-op, Townhouse & Apartment Residents, Owners and Managers in Hawaii, 3.
Cullen, T. (2003) , Issues and Challenges facing Aging-in-Place in Hawaii, Aging in Place: How to Cope. A Conference for Condo, Co-op, Townhouse & Apartment Residents, Owners and Managers in Hawaii, 10.
Mynatt, E.D., Irfan Essa, W.R. (2000). Increasing the Opportunities Aging in Place. ACM, Conference on Universal Usability 2000, 65.
Hambrick, D.C. (1983). Some Tests of the Effectiveness and Functional Attributes of Miles and Snow's strategic types. Academy of Management Journal, 26(1): 5-26.
Hodgson, P.B. (1972). An Examination of Market Research’s Public Image – Will the Public Continue to Cooperate ? In: Marketing in a changing world. The role of marketing research. Proceedings of the 1972 ESOMAR Congress, 341-360. Amsterdam: ESOMAR.
Sugimura, J. (2003). Issues and Challenges facing Aging-in-Place in Hawaii, Aging in Place: How to Cope. A Conference for Condo, Co-op, Townhouse & Apartment Residents, Owners and Managers in Hawaii, 9.
Matsuda, R.S. (2003). Issues and Challenges facing Aging-in-Place in Hawaii, Aging in Place: How to Cope. A Conference for Condo, Co-op, Townhouse & Apartment Residents, Owners and Managers in Hawaii, 4.
Tilles, S. (1963). The Manager's Job: A Systems Approach. Harvard Business Review, January-February 1963, pp. 73-81.
Savio, S. (2003). Issues and Challenges facing Aging-in-Place in Hawaii, Aging in Place: How to Cope. A Conference for Condo, Co-op, Townhouse & Apartment Residents, Owners and Managers in Hawaii, 8.

b.References to entire books
Book
Market, Research for the first time: Become a Successful Owner Manager. Project North East & LiveWIRE Youth Enterprise
Drucker, P. F (1980). Managing in Turbulent Times. London: Heinemann.
Porter, M.E.(1996). What is Strategy? Harvard Business Review, 74(6), pp. 61-78.

c.Doctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses
Metzler, D.P.,Davis, P.C. Employing a Mixed-Mode Qualitative Research method prior to Conducting Quantitative research. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas at Little Rock.
Mellor, J.P., Chris, H. (2004). Aging In Place Position Paper. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology.

d.Electronic Media
Strategy. Answers.com. Retrieved August 25, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.answers.com/Strategy
Identifying Market Opportunities Through Marketing Information Systems And Research:Global Agricultural Marketing Management. Chapter 5:The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved August 25, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/tegyw5973e09.htm.
Gunn, J. (2004). Comparison of Marketing Research Methods: The Pros and Cons of Research Methodologies Used by Associations and Other Nonprofit Organizations. John Gunn Marketing Partners. Retrieved August 29, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.gunnmarketingpartners.com/article_comparison.htm.
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