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研究生:陳君宜
研究生(外文):Chen, Chun-Yi
論文名稱:近十年來台灣大一新生英文能力變化之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Decade of Changes in the English Ability of University Freshmen in Taiwan
指導教授:幸雅各幸雅各引用關係
指導教授(外文):James M. Sims
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:英語能力大一新生技能組成要素(聽文法)
外文關鍵詞:English language abilityUniversity freshmenSub-components
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摘要

台灣的英語教育與學習環境在近十年來經歷了很大的改變,許多教師和學者便開始針對這些改變對於學生英語能力的影響提出看法。因此,本研究的主要目的,是針對七年來的大一新生在文法、閱讀、和聽力三部分的英語能力作診斷性分析。

本研究研究的對象是20261位東海大學大一的新生。他們來自台灣各地,其中百分之九十五以上的學生介於18到23歲之間,男女人數也大致相同。

所有東海大學的大一新生在入學時都必須要接受大一英語能力分班測驗,而本研究主要就是採用此一測驗的成績來做分析。此一測驗之效度及信度良好,並和全民英檢中高級有高度相關。測驗包含了三個部分:文法、閱讀、以及聽力。此外,為了要確切了解學生的長處和弱點,資料的分析也包含了各項技能中的組成要素。

本研究採用電腦統計軟體SPSS10.0 for Windows來分析收集到的資料。再以ANOVA和Tukey HSD檢測等兩個統計方法來比較每一年成績的平均數。本研究對於統計顯著性之測試,以α< .05作為決定統計結果顯著與否之標準。總計有四項總技能和十九項技能組成要素的分析比較。

本研究主要發現如下:第一、學生的總體英語能力在過去七年並沒有顯示出顯著的不同。第二、學生在文法整體能力方面有些許但不明顯的退步。在主動詞一致性、所有格代名詞、可數和不可數名詞、否定不定詞、和關係子句等五項文法組成要素的能力有顯著的退步;然而,學生的能力在受詞代名詞、連接詞、及正確使用「Suppose」此生字等三方面並沒有顯著的不同。第三、學生的整體閱讀能力在過去七年有些許但不明顯的退步。而除了在由上下文猜字和在推論能力兩方面有顯著的退步外,在其他方面學生的能力並沒有顯著的不同。第四、學生的英語聽力在過去七年來有顯著的不同。以整體英語聽力和延伸性選文聽力理解此一組成要素來說,學生的表現從1998到2005有越來越好的趨勢。但是,學生在另一聽力組成要素(選擇合適回應的立即性聽力技巧)上的表現在1998到2003年間有些許進步,但在2003年後又逐年下降。
ABSTRACT

In the last few decades, there have been a variety of changes in Taiwanese English education and the English learning environments on this island. The impact of these changes on students’ English language ability has been observed by teachers in the classroom and reported by researchers. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the English ability of university freshmen in Taiwan over the last decade. In order to assess the changes in students’ English language ability, this study examined university freshmen’s English ability in terms of grammar, reading, and listening, from 1998 to 2005.

In total, 20,261 freshmen, approximately 3,000 per year for each of the seven years, at Tunghai University were the subjects in this study. The participants came from all parts of Taiwan. More than 95% of the students were between the age of 18 and 23, with an approximately equal number of male and female students.
The data of this study were gathered from one major source: the scores on the Tunghai English Placement Exam (TEPE). All the students took the TEPE before they received any formal instruction at the university. The TEPE was judged as valid due to its high reliability, appropriate validity, and strong correlation to the High-Intermediate General English Proficiency Test (GEPT). The TEPE was composed of three sections: grammar, reading, and listening. The test specifications in each section were also analyzed to identify students’ weaknesses and strengths.

The SPSS 10.0 statistical package was used to analyze the data. One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test with alpha level <.05 were used to compare the means of the seven different years, or groups. In total, there were 4 major comparisons (i.e., total TEPE scores and total scores for grammar, reading, and listening) and 19 comparisons of individual components (i.e., 11 grammar points, 6 reading components, and 2 listening components).

The major findings of the study were as follows. First, there were no significant differences in students’ overall English ability over the past seven years. Second, students’ overall grammar ability declined slightly, but did not show significant differences. There were significant regressions in the categories of Possessive Pronoun, Count vs. Non-Count Noun, Infinitive Negation, Subject-Verb Agreement, and Relative Clause, whereas no significant differences were shown in the categories of Proper Verb Tense, Conjunction, Object Pronoun, and Appropriate Use of “Suppose”. In the categories of Passive Voice and Adjectives of Comparison, there were a few regressions in students’ performances. Third, students’ overall reading ability regressed slightly over the past seven years, but did not show important differences. Although there were changes in students’ performances on Reading for Inference and Vocabulary-in-Context questions, there was no indication of significant changes in students’ ability in the other reading areas. Lastly, there were significant differences in students’ overall listening ability over the seven years. Students’ overall listening ability and sub-listening ability as shown on responses to General Comprehension of Extended Listening Texts questions improved from 1998 to 2005, whereas their performances on Immediate Listening Skills through the Use of an Appropriate Response questions improved from 1998 to 2003 and declined again after 2003.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
CHINESE ABSTRACT iv
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES xi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problems 3
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 5
Definition of Term 6

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7
The Nature of Language Proficiency / Ability 8
Performance vs. Competence 8
Concepts of Communicative Competence 9
Communicative Competence / Ability Models 10
Complexity of the Definitions of, and Differing Views on, Language
Ability 12
Two General Approaches: Analytic vs. Unitary Language Ability 14
Definition of English Language Ability in this Study 14
Conclusion 16
Insights into Early English Education: The Critical Period Hypothesis
(CPH) 16
Overview 16
Effect of Age Differences on Language Acquisition in Terms of
Affective and Cognitive Perspectives 17
Conclusion 18
An Overview of English Education in Taiwan: Similarities and Differences
between the Past an the Present 19
Skills Emphasized 19
Entrance Exams 20
Designs and Uses of English Textbooks 20
Expected Role of Teachers 21
Expected Role of Learners and Learning Motivation 21
Conclusion 22
Related Research on English Language Ability 22
Studies that Examined the Influence of External Factors on Students’
English ability 22
Studies that Investigated the Relationship between Students’ Concurrent Skills 24
Studies that Reported Students’ English Ability in Terms of Key
Language Areas 24
Framework of this Study 25

CHAPTER THREE METHOD 26
Participants and Population 26
Measurements and Instrument 28
Test Specifications 28
Grammar Section 29
Reading Section 30
Listening Section 31
Validity of the TEPE 32
Reliability of the TEPE 34
Data Collection Procedures 34
Data Analysis Procedures 36

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 37
1. Total Scores of the TEPE 38
Summary of the Results for the Total TEPE Scores 41
2. Grammar Section 41
2-1 Total Grammar Scores 41
2-2 Proper Verb Tense 44
2-3 Subject-Verb Agreement 46
2-4 Adjectives of Comparison 49
2-5 Count vs. Non-Count Noun 52
2-6 Object Pronoun 55
2-7 Possessive Pronoun 58
2-8 Relative Clause 61
2-9 Conjunction 64
2-10 Passive Voice 67
2-11 Infinitive Negation 69
2-12 Appropriate Use of “Suppose” 72
Summary of the Results in the Grammar Section 75
3. Reading Section 81
3-1 Total Reading Scores 81
3-2 Main Idea of Passage 83
3-3 Main Idea of Paragraph 86
3-4 Reading for Comprehension in Terms of Details 89
3-5 Vocabulary-in-Context 92
3-6 Pronoun Reference 95
3-7 Reading for Inference 98
Summary of the Results in the Reading Section 101
4. Listening Section 105
4-1 Total Listening Scores 105
4-2 General Comprehension of Extended Listening Texts 107
4-3 Immediate Listening Skills through the Use of an Appropriate
Response 110
Summary of the Results in the Listening Section 114

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 116
Summary of Major Findings 116
Differences in Student’s Total English Language Ability 116
Differences in Students’ Grammar Ability 116
Differences in Students’ Reading Ability 117
Differences in Students’ Listening Ability 117
Discussions of the Findings and Pedagogical Implications 117
Grammar Ability 118
Reading Ability 120
Listening Ability 122
Significance of the Study 124
Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Research 125
Conclusion 126

REFERENCE 127
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