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研究生:吳蕙如
研究生(外文):Hui-Ru Wu
論文名稱:添加乳酸菌及甲酸對尼羅草青貯料品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and formic acid on quality of nilegrass silage
指導教授:施宗雄施宗雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Hsung Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:畜產與生物科技學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:甲酸胚芽乳桿菌尼羅草青貯料
外文關鍵詞:Formic acidL. plantarumNilegrassSilage
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試驗是以尼羅草為材料,以添加甲酸及胚芽乳桿菌菌株,製作青貯料。本試驗處理組分別為:接種胚芽乳桿菌菌酛(LP組)、噴灑98%甲酸(F組)、接種胚芽乳桿菌菌酛及噴灑甲酸(LPF組)、完全不接種胚芽乳桿菌菌酛及甲酸之對照組(C組)。兩個月後,各組的pH值皆下降至4.5以下,LPF組顯著的低於其他處理組,並且達差異顯著(P < 0.05)。其中以C組乾物質含量較F組及LPF組低,達差異顯著(P < 0.05),但是卻與LP組未達差異顯著。乳酸菌數仍然保有5 log10 cfu/g以上之菌數,其中以LPF組乳酸菌數最低。LP組菌數最高。酵母菌仍是以LPF組菌數最低,黴菌以F組及LPF組菌數較低。F組乳酸含量最低,達差異顯著(P < 0.05)。C組丁酸含量最高,達差異顯著(P < 0.05)。而在青貯料成分方面,LPF組有較低的酵母菌黴菌數,良好的水溶性碳水化合物,丁酸含量少,有較佳的品質,顯示添加甲酸及接種胚芽乳桿菌是較為理想的處理尼羅草青貯料方式。
The objective of this study was to determine the silage quality of nilegrass by adding Lactobacillus plantarum and formic acid. The following treatments were used: 1. Adding L. plantarum (LP); 2. Adding 98% formic acid solution (F); 3. Adding L. plantarum and formic acid solution (LPF); 4. Nontreatment used as check(C). Two months after ensiling, the pH values for all treatments decreased below 4.5, and that of LPF silage was significantly lower than those of the others (P < 0.05). The dry matter content of treatment C was significantly less than those of treatments F and LPF, but not for treatment LP (P < 0.05). The numbers of lactic acid bacteria for all were above 5 log10 cfu/g. Lactic acid bacteria number of treatments LPF was significantly lower and that of treatment LP was significantly higher than those of the others (P < 0.05). The numbers of yeast were the lowest for treatment LPF. For the numbers of molds, treatments F and LPF were significantly lower than the others (P < 0.05). The butyric acid content was the highest for treatment LPF. The results showed that the treatment LPF silage with low yeast and mold counts, low butyric acid contents and high content of water-soluble carbohydrates had better quality than did the others. It was suggested that nilegrass added with L. plantarum and formic acid could make good silage.
壹、中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、前言-------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
叁、文獻回顧-------------------------------------------------------------- 3
一、青貯芻料----------------------------------------------------------- 3
(一) 青貯料之定義------------------------------------------------ 3
(二)青貯料之調製與方法--------------------------------------- 4
 1.青貯材料------------------------------------------------------ 6
     (1) 盤固草--------------------------------------------------- 6
     (2) 狼尾草--------------------------------------------------- 7
   (3) 青割玉米------------------------------------------------ 8
 2.青貯設施----------------------------------------------------- 8
(1) 青貯塔或是直立式貯料塔--------------------------- 9
(2) 臥置式青貯設施--------------------------------------- 9
(3) 地上型青貯壕------------------------------------------ 9
(4) 地下型青貯壕------------------------------------------ 9
(5) 香腸式青貯設施--------------------------------------- 9
(6) 膠膜捆包------------------------------------------------ 10
(7) 堆積式青貯堆------------------------------------------ 10
(8) 太空包--------------------------------------------------- 10
  3.青貯水分含量------------------------------------------------ 12
(1) 植物體本身的差異------------------------------------ 13
(2) 自然環境的影響--------------------------------------- 14
(3) 物理處理的影響--------------------------------------- 14
(三)青貯料之發酵過程------------------------------------------ 14
(四)青貯料之添加物--------------------------------------------- 16
1.乳酸菌---------------------------------------------------------- 17
2.甲酸------------------------------------------------------------- 23
二、尼羅草-------------------------------------------------------------- 25
1.尼羅草之生長狀況------------------------------------------- 26
2.尼羅草之特性------------------------------------------------- 27
3.尼羅草之營養價值------------------------------------------- 28
肆、材料方法-------------------------------------------------------------- 30
一、供試菌酛、培養基、試藥及材料----------------------------- 30
二、儀器設備----------------------------------------------------------- 34
三、菌酛保存活化與樣品分析-------------------------------------- 35
四、尼羅草青貯料之製備-------------------------------------------- 36
五、分析方法----------------------------------------------------------- 37
六、統計分析----------------------------------------------------------- 47
伍、結果與討論----------------------------------------------------------- 48
一、一般成分分析----------------------------------------------------- 48
二、青貯期間成分變化----------------------------------------------- 49
(一)pH值----------------------------------------------------------- 49
(二)乾物質--------------------------------------------------------- 51
(三)微生物--------------------------------------------------------- 52
1.乳酸菌---------------------------------------------------------- 53
2.酵母菌---------------------------------------------------------- 55
3.黴菌------------------------------------------------------------- 57
(四)水溶性碳水化合物------------------------------------------ 59
(五)有機酸--------------------------------------------------------- 61
1.乳酸------------------------------------------------------------- 61
2.丁酸------------------------------------------------------------- 62
3.醋酸------------------------------------------------------------- 63
4.甲酸------------------------------------------------------------- 64
5.丙酸------------------------------------------------------------- 65
(六)氨態氮--------------------------------------------------------- 66
三、青貯料化學組成分-------------------------------------------------- 67
陸、結論-------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
柒、參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------- 85
捌、英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------- 98
玖、小傳-------------------------------------------------------------------- 100
表一、 胚芽乳桿菌之生化特性---------------------------------------- 21
表二、 碳水化合物的發酵產物--------------------------------------- 22
表三、 尼羅草成分分析------------------------------------------------ 68
表四、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料酵母
菌數的影響------------------------------------------------------
69
表五、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料黴菌
數的影響---------------------------------------------------------
70
表六、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸青貯後第60天青貯料化學成
分分析------------------------------------------------------------
71
圖一、青貯料製作流程-------------------------------------------------- 5
圖二、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料pH值
的影響-----------------------------------------------------------
72
圖三、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料乾物
值的影響---------------------------------------------------------
73
圖四、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料乳酸
菌數的影響------------------------------------------------------
74
圖五、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料碳水
化合物的影響---------------------------------------------------
75
圖六、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料乳酸
含量的影響------------------------------------------------------
76
圖七、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料丁酸
含量的影響------------------------------------------------------
77
圖八、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料乙酸
含量的影響------------------------------------------------------
78
圖九、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料甲酸
含量的影響------------------------------------------------------
79
圖十、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料丙酸
含量的影響------------------------------------------------------
80
圖十一、 尼羅草添加乳酸菌及甲酸後對其青貯期間青貯料氨
態氮含量的影響---------------------------------------------
81
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