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研究生:張艾喆
研究生(外文):Ai-Che Chang
論文名稱:以生活品質為中介變數探討當地居民對生態旅遊的支持
論文名稱(外文):A STUDY ON LOCAL RESIDENTS' SUPPORT OF ECOTOURISM WITH QUALITY OF LIFE AS A MEDIATOR
指導教授:陳美芳陳美芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Fang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:事業經營學系(所)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:生態旅遊生活品質結構方程式模型自然保護區
外文關鍵詞:SEMquality of lifeecotourismnature reserves
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為回應聯合國 (the United Nations) 及亞太經濟合作 (the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC) 會議,訂定2002年為國際生態旅遊年,前行政院長游錫堃訂定2002年為台灣生態旅遊年,並制定2002年生態旅遊年工作計劃。
生態旅遊為國際旅遊發展趨勢,而台灣擁有豐富的生態資源尚未開發。根據世界觀光組織 (the World Tourism Organization, WTO) 估計,生態旅遊業每年介於10%~15%的年成長率,是目前世界上最快速發展的產業;因此,生態旅遊為發展最快的產業。在大量遊客的造訪下,熱門觀光景點承受相當大的負面衝擊,間接影響當地居民的生活品質。2002生態旅遊年提供一個機會去檢視生態旅遊發展,並希望能完成環境、經濟及社會的發展目標。
根據上述的背景與動機,本研究的研究目的如下: (1) 了解發展生態旅遊時,影響當地居民生活品質之前因與當地居民生活品質之間的關係;(2) 了解當地居民生活品質與支持生態旅遊發展之間的關係;(3) 依研究結果,對管理當局及開發者提供建議。
本研究選定全世界最大的紅樹林溼地—淡水河口兩岸—八里挖仔尾、淡水河紅樹林及關渡自然保留區為抽樣地點,共取得513份有效問卷,以結構方程式模型 (Structural Equation Modeling, SEM) 評估當地居民生活品質及前因,與支持生態旅遊發展間的因果關係。
研究結果發現: (1) 知覺經濟利益與當地居民生活品質之間,依過去研究結果應為正向關係,但本研究的結果並不支持這樣的假設; (2) 知覺社會和文化成本與當地居民生活品質之間有負相關; (3) 知覺社會和文化利益與當地居民生活品質之間有正相關。本研究建議,社區管理單位和開發者追求生態旅遊發展應該要了解居民支持與否,並建議社區的領導者或管理單位以及開發者,應在決定開發自然生態保留區之前,先認真考慮當地居民的知覺及生活品質,以確保開發計劃的成功;否則,生態旅遊的開發不但無法提升當地的生活品質,反而因開發破壞了自然生態的原貌。
In response to the United Nations and APEC designated 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism, the Ex-executive Yuan Premier Yu Shyi-kun approved the 2002 Ecotourism Year Working Plan that made 2002 as Taiwan Ecotourism Year.
Ecotourism is an international trend and Taiwan has abundant ecotourism resources that have yet to be developed. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the estimated growth of this industry is between 10% and 15% per year and will become the largest industry in the world. Ecotourism is the fastest developing industry on earth. Ecotourism pays attention to both environmental protection and local economic development. On the other hand, business tourism merely cares for the bottom line and profits are collected by the enterprise, instead of contributing to local communities. Under a huge number of tourists visited, hot tourist spots sustain quite negative impacts and influence quality of life of the local residents indirectly. The 2002 Ecotourism Year affords the opportunity to exam ecotourism development, and hope can carry out the developing objectives among the environment, economic, and society.
According to the above context and motivation, the objectives of this study are described as follows: (1) to understand the relationship between quality of life of local residents and its antecedents for ecotourism development; (2) to understand the relationship between the quality of life of the local residents and their support for ecotourism development; (3) to provide the authorities and the industry with some suggestions.
This study adopts the largest mangrove swamp in the world—three nature reserves of Bali Watzuwei, Danshuei River Mangrove, and Guandu, which are bordering on the banks of Damshui River. This research contains 513 valid samples and uses the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the causality of the local residents’ quality of life and its antecedents, and support for ecotourism development.
The results are described as follows: (1) According to the result of literature review, perceived economic benefits should have positive influences on quality of life of the local residents, but the result is not supported such hypothesis in this study; (2) Perceived social and cultural costs have negative influences on quality of life of the local residents; (3) Perceived social and cultural benefits have positive influences on quality of life of the local residents. The study suggests that it is necessary to understand whether the local residents support or not before the authority of the community or the developers pursue the ecotourism development. The leader of the community, authorities and developers should conscientiously consider local residents’ perceptions and quality of life to ensure the success of the developing project before developing the nature ecological reserves. Otherwise, the ecotourism development not only decreases quality of life of the local residents, but also causes the damage to the original shape of the local natural ecology.
CHAPTER
Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 5
Ⅱ. LITERTURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Ecotourism 6
2.2 The Antecedents of Local Residents’ Quality of Life 7
2.3 The Relationship between Quality of Life and Support for Ecotourism 12
Ⅲ. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 17
3.1 Research Framework 17
3.2 Research Hypotheses 18
3.3 Operational Definitions of Variables 22
3.4 Questionnaire Design 23
3.4.1 Questionnaire 23
3.4.2 Pretest 27
3.5 Sampling Design and Data Collection 28
3.5.1 Sampling Design 28
3.5.2 Data Collection 30
3.6 Analysis Method 30
Ⅳ. DATA ANALYSIS 33
4.1 Data Description 33
4.2 Structural Equation Modeling Analysis 35
4.2.1 Measurement Model 35
4.2.2 Overall Fit Statistics of the Measurement Model 37
4.2.3 Discriminant Validity 38
4.2.4 Convergent Validity 40
4.2.5 Variance Extracted Estimates 40
4.3 Structural Equation Modeling Results 42
Ⅴ. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 45
5.1 Conclusions 45
5.2 Managerial Implications 47
5.3 Limitations and Future Research 50
BIBLIOGRAPHY 52
APPENDIX 56
VITA 60
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Available Web Site
The Web Site of Ministry of the Interior, http://www.moi.gov.tw/english/Foreword1.asp
The Web Site of the International Ecotourism Society, http://www.ecotourism.org/
The Web Site of the World Conservation Union, http://www.iucn.org/
The Web Site of Tourism Bureau, the Republic of China, http://www.taiwan.net.tw/lan/cht/index/index.asp
The Web Site of Natural Resources and Ecology GIS Database in Taiwan, http://ngis.zo.ntu.edu.tw/new/nr/index.htm
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The Web Site of Shihsanhang Museum of Archaeology, http://www.sshm.tpc.gov.tw/econtent/index.asp
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