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研究生:簡茂生
研究生(外文):Mao-Sheng Chien
論文名稱:利用台灣農產原料釀製日式燒酎之研究
論文名稱(外文):Brewing Japanese Shochu Using local Crops
指導教授:段國仁段國仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Kow-Jen Duan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:生物工程學系(所)
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:英文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:紅甘薯黃甘薯黑糖
外文關鍵詞:Rice . Sweet Potato . Barley . Brown Sugar . Yea
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摘要
本研究利用台灣農產原料米,紅甘薯,黃甘薯,黑糖,以及進口的濃縮麥芽精為原料,試驗製造日本燒酎。利用黃麴菌(BCRC 30428)製造麴米,以提供分解澱粉質原料所需要的糖化酵素,酒精發酵則採用一株日本燒酎用的酵母菌(BCRC 22292)。先以麴米,酵母菌製造酒母之後(一次醪),再加入蒸煮過的原料與麴米進行發酵(二次醪)。發酵完成的燒酎則以常壓蒸餾,分別擷取酒精度19∼40度及40∼55度兩段酒液裝瓶,在常溫密封貯存三個月後,取出以氣相層析儀做香味成分分析。
各種類燒酎之主體香味成分有羰基化合物、酯類、高級醇類、芳香族化合物構成,而其中以高級醇類所佔香味成分的總百分比最大(13~83%)。主要高級醇類為n-propanol、i-butanol、2-methyl-butanol(2-甲基丁醇)、3-methyl- butanol (異戊醇),其中以異戊醇含量最高。至於酯類香氣占總體香味成分的 1~5% 不等,乙酸乙酯以及己酸乙酯皆因濃度太稀,用我們現有的儀器測不出來,反而是高沸點的酯類如,乳酸乙酯則有出現。
研究結果顯示高酒精度的燒酎收集的香氣成分較佳,若要勾兌成低酒精度的燒酎商品,也應該利用高酒精度的燒酎為原料較好。
Abstract
Shochu is a tranditional Japanese spirit. The present study employed local agricultural products such as rice, sweet potato (red and yellow), brown sugar, and malt extract to make shochu in small scale. We used Aspergillus oryzae (BCRC 30428) as strain for koji rice and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BCRC 22292) for Shubo (yeast starter) in our study. The Shubo mixed with steamed raw materials (rice and sweet potato), or brown sugar, malt extract for further fermentation for 2 weeks. The broth was distilled at 1 atmosphere. Distillate was collected for alcohol content above 40 % (v/v) as high alcohol shochu, and 19~40 % (v/v) as low alcohol shocho. The shochu was stored in room temperature for three month. The flavor compounds of shochu were analyzed by gas chromatography.
The flavor compounds of shochu from gas chromatography can be clssified as carboxylic compounds, esters, higher alcohols, and aromatics. The higher alcohol shochu composed the major flavors (13 ~ 83 %). The major flavors are n-propanol, i-butanol, 2-methyl butanol, 3-methyl butanol. Among them, 3-methyl butanol is the most flavor compound. The esters are relatively low in concentration. Ethyl lactate cound be found in all of the shochu samples.

The flavor compounds for high alcohol shochu are better than those for lower alcohol shochu. It is recommended to dilute high alcohol shochu to make low alcohol shochu product.
LIST OF CONTENT
page
CHINESE ABSTRACT.................................................................................Ⅰ
ABSTRACT..............................................................................................Ⅱ
LIST OF CONTENT ...................................................................................Ⅳ
LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................Ⅷ
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................Ⅸ
CHAPTER
1.Preface .......................................................................................................1
1.1Background of Research.......................................................................1
1.2 Purpose................................................................................................4
1.3 The brief of Introduction...............…………………..........................4
2. Literature Review.................................………………………...………..6
2.1 Introduction of Alcohol (Alcoholic Beverage) .………………….…6
2.1.1Classification of Alcohol....………………………………….….6
2.1.2 Market Analysis of Distilled Alcoholic Beverage……………...9
2.2 Introduction of Shochu......................................................................12
2.2.1 Definition of Shochu...................................................................12
2.2.2 Classification of Shochu.............................................................12
2.2.2.1 Two Classifications According to Japanese Alcohol
Duty Law... ...........................................................................12
2.2.2.2 Classifications According to Ingredients….........................14
2.2.3 Quality of Shochu.......................................................................16
2.2.3.1 Main Compounds of Flavor of Shochu................................16
2.2.3.2 Index of Quality of Shochu…………..................................16
2.2.4 Japanese Evaluation Method to Shochu……............................16
2.2.4.1 Sense Evaluation.......…………………………...................16
2.2.4.2 Compound Analysis.............................................................17
2.2.4.3 Factor Influencing Value of Compound Analysis................17
2.2.5 Shochu Brewing Procedure........................................................18
2.3 Ingredient used in Shochu and Ingredient Processing......................21
2.3.1 Ingredient and Ingredient Processing.........................................21
2.3.1.1 Rice......................................................................................21
2.3.1.2 Sweet Potato........................................................................26
2.3.1.3 Barley.................................................................................. 27
2.3.1.4 Brown Sugar........................................................................28
2.3.2 Brewing Water and related Processing......................................28
2.4 Yeast making Procedure for Shochu Brewing...................................29
2.4.1 General Introduction..................................................................29
2.4.2 Ingredient in Yeast making........................................................33
2.4.3 Yeast making Method................................................................34
2.5 Shochu Moromi and Fermentation Procedure……...........................41
2.5.1 General Introduction..................................................................41
2.5.2 Initial Moromi............................................................................45
2.5.3 Second Time Moromi.................................................................49
2.5.3.1. Rice Moromi………………...…………………………....49
2.6 Distillation Method of Shochu Moromi.............................................53
2.6.1 General Introduction..................................................................54
2.6.2 Atmospheric Distillation............................................................54
2.6.3 Decompressing Distillation.......................................................58
2.6.4 Compound Comparison between Products of
Atmospheric Distillation and Reduced Pressure distillation......60
2.7 Maturity of Shochu............................................................................61
3. Ingredient, Equipment and Method.................………………………....62
3.1 Bacterium and Ingredient..................................................................62
3.1.1 Microorganism.............................................................................62
3.1.2 Ingredient….................................................................................62
3.2 Medium.............................................................................................62
3.2.1 Malt Broth Medium Preparation…....................…….……......62
3.2.2 Medium for Bacterium Culture.................................................63
3.2.3 Medium for Bacterium Store.....................................................63
3.3 Equipment......................……………………………….........….…..63
3.4 Procedure.........…………………………………….............….....…64
3.4.1 Structure ........................…………………………….....…...…64
3.4.2 Yeast making……………………...................................…........65
3.4.3 Saccharomycete Culture.........…………………..…......….…...66
3.4.4 Shubo Preparation.…………………………...................……...66
3.4.5 Moromi Preparation......……………..……………............……69
3.4.6 Filtration..........………………………..………..........................71
3.4.7 Clarifying....................................................................................71
3.4.8 Distillation................………………..…………….....................71
3.4.9 Bottling.............…………………..………………….................71
3.4.10 Storage.........……………………..………................................72
3.5 Comparison of Flavor Compounds Measuring Analysis..…....…..…72
4. Result and Discussion............…....…..……….................................……74
4.1 Result of Domestic Manufactured Shochu Gas chromatography......74
4.1.1 Domestic Manufactured Shochu Gas chromatography...............74
4.1.2 Flavor Compound Analysis of Domestic
Manufactured Shochu .................................................................80
4.2 Aggregate Analysis of Flavor Compound of Various
Domestic Manufactured Shochu .....……………………………..83
4.3 Fragrant Type of Various Shochu……..…………………..…...…84
4.3.1 Classfying Flavor Compound by the boiling Point …....……84
4.3.2. Flavor Compound of Ester……….....................……....…....85
4.3.2.1 Character of Flavor Compound of Ester……...........……85
4.3.2.2 Analysis of Flavor Compound of Ester......…………..…85
4.3.3 Flavoring Compounds of Alcohol…………….......................86
4.3.3.1 Character of Flavoring Compound of Alcohol…....….....87
4.3.3.2 Analysis of Flavor Compound of Higher Alcohol…........87
4.3.4 Flavor Compound of Aromatic Compound…….……….…...88
5. Conclusion..........................................................................……......90
Reference....................................………………..……......……........ 91
Reference.
1.鹿児島の本格焼酎(2000) /鹿児島県本格焼酎技術研究会編著,春苑堂出版,日本。
2.酒客/2004 No.135。
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6.酒のしおり(2005),国税庁課税部酒税課発行,日本,東京。
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8.日本酒辞典/穂積忠彦監/修水沢溪/小松�痗紗s著,健友館,日本。
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11.酒造好適米「吟の精」の選抜と酒造適性について,秋田縣総合食品研究酒類部門。
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14.趜學(2000)/村上英也,日本釀造協會,日本。
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教材,台北。
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17.燒酎香味成分之探討 (2004)/李水課,私立大同大學生物工程研究所碩士論文。
18.自動蒸留システムの構築に関すゐ(1992 No.6)/ 鹿児島県工業技術センター研究報告,日本。
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21.日本釀造協會(1991)本格燒酎製造技術。
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