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研究生:邱立彥
研究生(外文):Chiu Li-Yen
論文名稱:利用手機信號到達強度估測位置之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Handset Position Estimation by Signal Strength of Arrival
指導教授:樓壁卿樓壁卿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lou Pi-Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:育達商業技術學院
系所名稱:資訊管理所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:行動定位細胞識別碼
外文關鍵詞:Mobile PositionCell-ID
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  在目前的行動定位技術中,以GPS定位技術為最佳,不僅擁有少於15公尺的高定位精確度,更只需在行動端加裝GPS晶片即可使用,可惜高價格的GPS晶片使得此技術難以普及化,因此,以GSM通訊網路為主的定位技術逐漸受人們所重視,其中,又以TOA或AOA等定位技術較常被使用,僅透過位置測量儀器的幫助,便可取得定位所需的時間和角度,並且擁有不錯的定位精確度,可惜也受到高價格因素的關係難以普及化,而每種定位技術都有其瓶頸存在,不論是外在環境的影響、成本和定位效能上;所以,本研究的目的在於找出行動端位置,即利用現有的資訊(細胞識別碼、訊號強度等)來完成定位動作,而非強調其定位精確度的提高。

  在本論文中,我們提出在GSM無線通訊系統中利用細胞識別碼縮小行動端可能的所在區域。從接收端所收到的訊號強度中,取三個最大的訊號強度,分別套入至訊號衰減模組內。經由訊號衰減模組還原成行動端和接收端的相對距離後,先使用最小平方法處理距離的觀測量,藉此達到誤差最小化的目的,然後再以梯度遞減為主的定位演算法進行計算,即可找出行動端的估測位置;本研究提出的定位方法實際與利用GPS定位器取得的經緯度資訊進行比較,其定位結果的誤差在60公尺左右,由此便可證明此定位方法已符合原先找出行動端位置的目的。除此之外,本研究中還設計系統模擬程式,首先,針對基地台位置分佈情形(三角形、四邊形)進行定位模擬,從模擬結果中得知,在兩種基地台位置分佈情形下的定位結果並沒有明顯不同;其次,為針對不同訊號強度在相同的基地台位置下進行定位模擬,從模擬結果中得知,訊號強度的不同確實會影響到定位結果,但是其改變仍然會維持在某個範圍之內。
  In the presently mobile position technology, GPS's position method is one of the best. This method owns high accuracy less than 15 meters, and can be used with GPS chip in the mobile station. But GPS chip with the high price makes this technology difficult to popular. Therefore, the position technology of GSM communication network is attention to the people gradually. TOA or AOA is more often used among position technology, these methods need only the help of the position measuring instrument to attain time and angle for position calculation. They have good position accuracy, but they are also too expensive to popular. Every positioning technology has its bottleneck such as external environment influence, cost and positing efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this research lies in finding out the mobile station location and does not emphasize the raise of the accuracy and it only uses existing information to finish position action.

  We propose to use the Cell-ID parameter to estimate the area that mobile phone location. According to the signal strength from the received station, fetch three pieces of largest signal strength. Signal attenuation model converts the three signal strength of each channel to the distance between mobile and receive stations. It first uses least squares method to deal with distance from observation, and purposes to minimize position error, then it uses gradient gescent position algorithm to calculate the estimating location of the mobile station. The position method is compared with the longitude and latitude information of GPS position equipment and positioning error is about 60 meters. According to this result, this position method has been proved to find out the rough location. In addition, the simulation program is also designed to simulate the feasibility of system in this research. First, the program is preceding base station distribution. From the result of simulation, there are not obviously differences between two base stations. Secondary, the program is preceding different signal strength under a location of the same base station. From the result of simulation, signal strength can influence result of position, but its changes can be maintained in a certain range.
目錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 3
1.3 研究目的 4
1.4 研究流程 5
1.5 研究架構 6
1.6 研究方法 6
第二章 無線行動通訊概述 9
2.1 全球無線行動通訊發展歷程 9
2.1.1 蜂巢行動電話系統 10
2.1.2 無線電話系統 11
2.2 我國無線行動通訊發展歷程與現況 11
2.3 第三代行動通訊產業的發展現況 13
2.4 泛歐式系統(GSM)介紹 14
2.4.1 GSM系統規格 14
2.4.2 GSM使用頻段 16
2.4.3 GSM系統架構 16
2.4.4 GSM通訊系統的邏輯通道 19
2.4.5 GSM通訊系統相關的特性 22
第三章 行動定位技術 26
3.1 全球定位系統 26
3.1.1 GPS的原理 27
3.1.2 GPS構成 28
3.1.3 GPS的應用 29
3.1.4 GPS系統的誤差來源 30
3.2 協助式全球定位技術 32
3.3 無線基地台定位技術 35
3.3.1 信號到達時間 35
3.3.2 信號到達時間差 36
3.3.3 增強測量時間差 38
3.3.4 時間提前 40
3.3.5 細胞識別碼 41
3.3.6 頻道信號強度 42
3.3.7 信號到達角度 44
3.3.8 資料庫相關法 45
3.3.9 混合型 45
第四章 無線通道模型 47
4.1 無線通道 47
4.2 傳播路徑衰減模型 49
4.2.1 自由空間傳播模型 49
4.2.2 對數距離路徑衰減模型 50
4.3 大尺度傳播模型 52
4.3.1 遮蔽效應與對數-常態分配 52
4.4 小尺度傳播模型 53
4.4.1 多重路徑效應影起的延遲擴展 54
4.4.1.1 多重路徑效應 54
4.4.1.2 延遲擴展及功率延遲概觀 55
4.4.1.3 時散參數 56
4.4.1.4 同調頻寬 58
4.4.1.5 寬頻系統與窄頻系統 59
4.4.2 都普勒效應造成的頻率偏移 63
4.4.2.1 都普勒偏移及同調時間 63
4.4.2.2 緩慢衰減及快速衰減 64
第五章 研究模擬的設計與分析 67
5.1 訊號衰減的因素及應用 67
5.2 定位演算法分析 69
5.3 系統模擬工具的設計和執行 78
5.4 不同基地台分佈位置定位的分析 85
5.5 訊號強度定位的分析 88
第六章 結論 96
參考文獻 98
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