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研究生:劉茂宏
研究生(外文):Mao-Hung Liu
論文名稱:屋內式變電所接地電阻之量測與計算
論文名稱(外文):Measurement and Computation of Ground Resistances for an Indoor-Type Substation
指導教授:李建興李建興引用關係王耀諄王耀諄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Hsing LeeYaw-Juen Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:電位降法映射法電位電極電流電極屋內式變電所接地電阻單層土壤模型雙層土壤模型
外文關鍵詞:PoteFall-of-Potential MethodMethod of Images
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變電所接地系統對於維持電力系統可靠運轉及確保人員之安全是非常重要的,一般接地系統之組成包括地網、接地匯流排與設備接地線等。當變電所接地系統施工完成後,須立即以電位降法量測地網接地電阻,確認量測實際值是否合乎所規定之值,以確保電力系統之可靠度及人員之安全。在經濟考量之下,其地網接地電阻應做準確的分析且須有完整的系統資料,才不致使設計與量測結果產生較大誤差。

本論文主要目的在介紹以映射法計算單層土壤模型之地網接地電阻,以及提出依雙層土壤結構(地網埋設於雙層土壤第二層且觀測點於土壤第一層與第二層)比較二種不同地網之接地電阻,用以計算屋內式公園與榴中一次配電變電所(161/23.9-11.95kV)地網接地電阻,並以該變電所接地電阻量測實際值為基準,分析變電所接地電阻設計之準確性。
The grounding system of a substation is important to maintain the reliable operation of power systems and ensure human safety. The grounding system consists of ground grid, ground bus and equipment ground wire. If the grounding system at an indoor-type substation is finished, a plan to measure its actual ground resistance should be confirmed with stipulated value by the fall-of-potential method immediately. To prevent large errors generated within the design and measurement results, the ground resistance should be accurately analyzed as well as the entire system data should be listed clearly for economical reasons.

The main purpose of this thesis is to calculate the ground resistance by using one-layer model of the image method and proposes two kinds of two-layer model (grid buried in the lower-layer of two-layer soil and observation point located in upper-layer and lower-layer), and then calculated ground resistance at Gongyuan and Lioujhong indoor-type 161/23.9-11.95 kV substations as well as analyzes the accuracy of ground resistance based on surveying value.
摘要……………………………………………………………………………………....i
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………….....................ii
誌謝..................................................................................................................................iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………………………..iv
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………….vii
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………………viii
符號說明………………………………………………………………………………...x
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………...1
1.0 前言……………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究動機及背景………………………………………………………………1
1.2 文獻回顧………………………………………………………………………2
1.3 論文架構………………………………………………………………………3
第二章 變電所接地系統之目的及接地系統安全評估方式………….......................4
2.0 前言……………………………………………………………………………4
2.1變電所接地系統架構及目的…………………………………………….……4
2.1.1 變電所接地系統架構……...………………………………………......4
2.1.2 變電所接地系統之目的…………………………………………….....5
2.1.3 變電所接地種類之描述……………………………………………….7
2.1.4 系統接地的方式……………………………………………………….7
2.2 電流流過人體的效應…………………………………………………………8
2.3 電流對人體的作用……………………………………………………………8
2.3.1 電流大小對人體的作用…………………………………………….…9
2.3.2 電流流過人體的時間對人體的作用………………………………...11
2.3.3 電流流過人體途徑的影響…………………………………………...11
2.3.4 電流傷害程度與人體狀況的關係…………………………………...12
2.3.5 人體阻抗……………………………………………………………...13
2.4 安全電流……………………………………………………………………..14
2.4.1 人身安全電流………………………………………………….……..14
2.4.2 允許安全電流………………………………………………………...14
2.4.3 持續安全電流………………………………………………………...15
2.5 接地安全評估方式…………………………………………………………..15
2.5.1 接觸與步間電壓的標準……………………………………………...15
2.5.2 接地電位升.…………………………………………………………..19
2.6 結語…………………………………...……………………………………...20
第三章 台灣電力公司輸變電描述與變電所接地系統介紹……………………….21
3.0 前言…………………………………………………………………………..21
3.1 台電輸變電系統描述.……………………………………………………….21
3.1.1 變電所數量及變壓器容量…………………………………………...22
3.1.2 輸電線路長度………………………………………………………...23
3.2 超高壓變電所之接地………………………………………………………..23
3.3 一次變電所之接地…………………………………………………………..24
3.3.1 屋外式一次變電所…………………………………………………...24
3.3.2 屋內式一次變電所…………………………………………………...28
3.4 一次配電變電所之接地……………………………………………………..30
3.5 二次變電所之接地…………………………………………………………..30
3.6 結語…………………………………………………………………………..31
第四章 接地電阻及土壤電阻率之量測方式………………………………………...32
4.0 前言…………………………………………………………………………..32
4.1 接地電阻電位降量測方法理論介紹………………….…………………….32
4.1.1 電位降法理論介紹…………………………………………………...32
4.1.2 電位降法測試電路………………………………………………...…34
4.2 土壤電阻率之量測方式…………………………………………………..…36
4.2.1 溫納(Wenner)四極法…………………………………………………36
4.2.2 施蘭貝吉(Schlumberger)四極法……………………………………..38
4.3 結語………………………………………………………………………..…39
第五章 屋內式公園與榴中一次配電變電所地網接地電阻值計算與模擬………...40
5.0 前言…………………………………………………………………………..40
5.1 屋內式公園與榴中一次配電變電所之簡述………………………………..40
5.2 變電所地網接地電阻之計算………………………………………………..45
5.2.1 單層土壤模型………………………………………………………...45
5.2.2 雙層土壤模型………………………………………………………...47
5.3 電位降法量測誤差之計算…………………………………………………..50
5.3.1 單層土壤模型………………………………………………………...50
5.3.2 雙層土壤模型………………………………………………………...51
5.3.3 變電所接地電阻實際值………………………...……………………51
5.4 接地安全評估………………………………………………………………..52
5.4.1接觸電壓………………………………………………………………52
5.4.2接地電位昇……………………………………………………………52
5.5 設計參數……………………………………………………………………..53
5.6 模擬結果……………………………………………………………………..57
5.6.1雙層土壤模型之土壤電阻率與深度…………………………………57
5.6.2變電所接地系統符合設計與否之判定………………………………57
5.6.3單層及雙層土壤模型接地電阻計算值與其誤差量…………………61
5.6.4 CDEGS模擬結果………………………………………………….…..66
5.6.5雙層土壤模型電位電極埋設準確度…………………………………70
5.7 結語…………………………………………………………………………..73
第六章 結論與未來研究方向……………………………………………………….75
6.0 結論…………………………………………………………………………..75
6.1 未來研究方向………………………………………………………………..76
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………….77
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