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研究生:洪健原
研究生(外文):Jian-Yuan Hong
論文名稱:口腔顎面立體放射線影像診療技術研究
論文名稱(外文):Oral and maxillofacial diagnosis based on stereoscopic Radiography
指導教授:吳先晃
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:數位放射攝影立體影像影像扭正牙科立體放射照相術
外文關鍵詞:image rectificationimage processingDental stereoradiographyStereoscopic imagingDigital radiography
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一般口腔檢查只能看到牙齒表面狀態或是淺層的牙周,牙齦的健康情況,但對於牙根病變,齒槽神經發炎或內部齲齒等便需使用X光透視照相才可發現病變。為協助牙醫師對病人的病情診斷,在醫療及診斷過程中,X光扮演著非常重要的角色。病人接受X光檢查成為一項不可或缺的步驟,為提昇醫療品質,病人接受X光檢查的機會也相對增加。
由於醫學科技的發展,具許多優點的數位化X光取像,已漸漸取代傳統膠片。就類比膠片與數位X光在診斷結果上而言,目前研究發現大部分的數位影像在診斷效率上和傳統Kodak Ektaspeed-plus底片並無明顯差異。而數位影像的無污染及具備的影像處理技術如乘冪率轉換(Power-Law Transformations)、非銳化遮罩(Unsharp Masking)等,不僅能讓影像資料易於管理,更使得影像更清晰及更適合於作觀察診斷。
在醫學應用上,立體視覺可提供更多有用的診療資訊,所以先對立體相關原理進行了解,並且比較目前市面上,常用的立體觀看裝置,以便設計更佳合適的立體觀看系統。在使用立體觀看形式前,其數位立體觀測系統的研製亦將說明之。
口腔立體影像曾被用來作診療,以減少診斷上的困難度及增加精確性。但由於需要兩張影像,因此有增加放射線的疑慮而漸式微。但近年來由於數位X光的放射劑量大幅降低,預期此數位化的風潮,將會提高立體影像使用的頻率。首先簡單介紹X光拍攝的基本技巧與牙科定位常用的頰側物體法則 (Buccal object rule, BOR),接著探討拍攝立體放射線的適當角度,及介紹適用立體影像的口腔疾病,如阻生齒、根管結構、下顎神經管等。研究發現,對於6位觀察者評估30組放射線影像例子,使用生物醫學統計學學生配對t檢驗(student''s two-tailed paired t test)進行顯著性檢驗分析,由檢定結果可以知道立體觀看模式具有統計顯著性(t=4.959,p=0.0043),因此立體影像可以取代頰側物體法則使得診斷更加容易。
A general oral check can only see tooth surface state or the simple tooth week of layer and health condition of gums. However, it is necessary to use X-ray to check root of the tooth pathological change, tooth''s socket neural inflammation or inside decayed tooth. In order to help the tooth doctor to diagnose the patient''s condition, X-ray is playing a very important role in medical treatment and course of diagnosing. The patient accepts X-ray and checks becomes an indispensable step, in order to promote medical quality, the chance that the patient accepts the X-ray and checks also increases relatively.
With the development of medical science and technology, the digital X-ray which has a lot of advantages has already replaced traditional film gradually. Compared digit X-ray with conventional film in diagnosing the result, you will see there are not obvious differences between conventional Kodak Ektaspeed-plus film and digital images in diagnosing efficiency. Moreover, digital images are pollution-free and easily to handle such as power-law transformations, unsharp masking and so on. Digital images are not only easy to manage, but also make the images clearer and suited for diagnosis observation.

For medical applications, the three-dimensional vision can offer more useful information for making a diagnosis. In order to design a good three-dimensional watching system, we have to understand three-dimensional relevant principles first and research the related products on the market at present.
In order to reduce diagnose difficulty and promote the accuracy, the three-dimensional image oral check had made diagnoses for a while, but it needed to take two images. Therefore, there was a doubt about increasing radioactive rays, so it had been abandoned gradually. Due to the low radiation dosage of digit X-ray reduced in recent years, it is expected that digit X-ray will enhance the utilization rate of three-dimensional images.
First, we briefly introduce to basic skill of the X-rays shooting and orient the commonly used cheek side object rule (Buccal object rule, BOR), then discuss the proper angle which shoots the three-dimensional radioactive rays. Finally, we introduce the oral cavity disease of the suitable three-dimensional images including structure, lower jaw nerve such as hindering the population, root and so on.
After evaluating six observers’30 sets of radioactive rays images, t is examined (student''s two-tailed paired t test) to use biomedical statistics students and mate Carry on dominance inspection and analyses, can know from the result of assaying that watch the way counting dominance (t three-dimensionally =4.959,p =0.0043),So the three-dimensional image can replace the cheek side object rule makes diagnosis easier.
第一章 序論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 相關文獻與研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 研究大綱 3
第二章 立體視覺系統之相關研究 7
2.1 立體技術介紹 7
2.1.1 深度知覺 8
2.1.2 產生深度感的形式 11
2.1.3 視差角度 13
2.2 立體顯示裝置 14
2.3 數位雙螢幕立體顯示系統 17
第三章 口腔X光攝影 26
3.1 X光攝影 26
3.1.1傳統X光攝影 27
3.1.2 類比和數位X光攝影分析比較 28
3.2 數位X光攝影 30
3.2.1 數位成像 30
3.2.2 數位偵測器 31
3.3數位影像影像處理技術 35
3.3.1 乘冪率轉換 35
3.3.2 非銳化遮罩 36
第四章 口腔立體影像 41
4.1 X光照射技術 41
4.2 頰側物體法則 42
4.3 放射線立體影像之研究 44
4.4 適用立體口腔病例 47
4.4.1 下顎管(mandibular canal) 48
4.4.2 阻生齒(tooth impaction) 50
4.4.3 牙齒的根管結構(root configuration) 52
4.5 口腔立體仿射模型 54
4.5.1共軛幾何(Epipolar Geometry)簡介 54
4.5.2基本矩陣 57
4.5.3利用新參數同時求出F Matrix與H Matrix 60
4.5.4 Affine Rectifying Homographies 62
4.5.5 平面反射折射式仿射立體扭正 66
第五章 立體影像效能評估研究 70
5.1 ROC曲線分析基本原理介紹 70
5.1.1 介紹 70
5.1.2 ROC基本原理 71
5.1.2 ROC曲線評價指標 74
5.2 生物醫學統計學 76
5.2.1區間估計或信賴區間 77
5.2.2 成對樣本平均數 的區間估計 78
5.2.3 假設檢定 79
5.2.4 成對樣本t檢定 81
5.3 立體視鏡轉接器 84
5.3.1 簡介 84
5.3.2 adapter的特性 85
5.4 實驗結果 86
5.4.1 非透視物體配對樣本t檢定 86
5.4.2 口腔X光片配對樣本t檢定 90
5.4.2 配對樣本t檢定實例 91
第六章 結論及未來方向 96
6.1 結論 96
6.2 未來方向 97
附錄一 t-table 98
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