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研究生:王建凱
研究生(外文):Jian-Kai Wang
論文名稱:無線感測網路上以叢集為基礎的時槽配置協定
論文名稱(外文):A Cluster-based Slot Allocation Adjusting Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:劉如生
指導教授(外文):Ru-Sheng Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:32
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路叢集時槽配置省電
外文關鍵詞:Wireless Sensor NetworksClusterSlot AllocationPower Saving
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無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks ,WSN)通常包含大量且低成本的感測節點,透過共同合作以進行大面積範圍的相關應用,例如環境偵測、入侵察覺和災害控管等等。 由於無線感測裝置需做長時間的感測及資料傳輸工作,因此其最大的限制就是有限的電力。 有鑑於此,目前很多的研究都著重於有效的電力使用來延長整體網路的壽命。 相較之下,公平性和傳送的延遲時間則屬於較次要的問題。

本篇論文將發展一個建立在叢集(Cluster)架構上,以TDMA為基礎的MAC(Medium Access Control)機制來達到最大的省電效果。 本機制透過預先調整配置時槽的方法,盡可能避免叢集間傳送資料時產生的碰撞,以降低碰撞次數,因而避免在資料上重傳的電力浪費。 此外,本機制搭配以TDMA為主體的MAC協定,使各節點除了在固定時槽時間傳送資料外,其餘時間都能夠進入休眠模式,藉此有效延長整體網路之壽命。
Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a large number of low cost sensor nodes, which can collaborate among each other to enable a wide range of applications such as environmental monitoring, intrusion detection and disaster management … etc. Since the sensor nodes must sense and transmit data for a long period of time, wireless sensing devices are seriously restricted by their limited energy supply. Therefore, many researchers are working on how to manipulate the sensor nodes energies efficiently and extend the whole network lifetime. The issues of fairness and delay time are relatively not so important.

In this paper, we will develop a TDMA based Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism on cluster infrastructure to achieve the maximum power saving. Through adjusting time slot allocation in advance, our mechanism tries to avoid the collisions resulting from the transmissions between clusters as much as possible. Then, we may reduce a lot of energy consumption on retransmitting. Finally, through the MAC protocol coupled with TDMA, each sensor node may wake up at the fixed time slot and turn into the sleep mode for a long time. Therefore, our mechanism will save the energies efficiently and extend the whole network lifetime.
書名頁 I
英文摘要 II
摘要 III
致謝 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 3
1.4 預期結果 3
1.5 章節概要 3
第二章 相關研究 5
第三章 研究方法 8
3.1初始動作:隨機排程 8
3.2 調整時槽、避免碰撞 11
3.2-1 階段一 排除BN產生的碰撞 11
3.2-2 階段二 調整BN的時槽 13
3.2-3 階段三 排除其餘碰撞 16
3.2-4 階段四 調整非BN節點的時槽 17
3.3 開始資料傳輸 19
3.3-1 傳輸相關設定 19
3.3-2 資料傳輸運作 20
第四章 模擬與分析 22
4.1 模擬參數設定 22
4.2 模擬結果與分析 23
4.2-1 frame相關係數的決定 23
4.2-2 CSAA與TDRN的比較 25
4.2-3 CSAA與LEACH-C(No DSSS)的比較 28
第五章 結論與未來展望 30
參考文獻 31
[1] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “An energy-efficient MAC
protocol for wireless sensor networks”, INFOCOM 2002.

[2] S. Singh and C. S. Raghavendra, “PAMAS: Poweraware multiaccess
protocol with signaling for ad hoc networks”, ACM
Computer Communication Review, 28(3):5-26, July 1998.

[3] Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman, Anantha Chandrakasan, and Hari
Balakrishnan,Energy-efficient communication protocols for wireless
Microsensor networks,” in Proceedings of the Hawaii International
Conference on Systems Sciences, Jan. 2000.

[4] W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An
Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 1, no. 4, Oct. 2002, pp. 660–70.

[5] Cluster-head election using fuzzy logic for wireless sensor networks
Indranil Gupta; Riordan, D.; Srinivas Sampalli;
Communication Networks and Services Research Conference, 2005. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual 16-18 May 2005 Page(s):255 - 260

[6] An Approach to Hybrid Clustering and Routing in Wireless Sensor
Networks Tillapart, P.; Thammarojsakul, S.; Thumthawatworn, T.; Santiprabhob, P.; Aerospace, 2005 IEEE Conference
05-12 March 2005 Page(s):1 - 8

[7] A centralized energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor
networks
Muruganathan, S.D.; Ma, D.C.F.; Bhasin, R.I.; Fapojuwo, A.O.;
Communications Magazine, IEEE
Volume 43, Issue 3, March 2005 Page(s):S8 - 13

[8] T. Murata and H. Ishibuchi, “Performance evaluation of genetic
algorithms for flowshop scheduling problems,” Proc. 1st IEEE Conf.
Evolutionary Computation, vol. 2, pp. 812–817, June 1994.

[9] http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/

[10] http://www.internetworkflow.com/resources/ns2leach.pdf

[11] An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks;
Wendi B. Heinzelman, Member, IEEE, Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Senior Member, IEEE, and Hari Balakrishnan, Member, IEEE
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