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研究生:陳小萍
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Ping Chen
論文名稱:機構特性、知覺風險、涉入程度與個人因素對消費者意願之研究-以三種不同類型的長期照護機構為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Facility Characteristics, Perceived Risks, Involvement, and Personal Factors with Respect to Consumer Intentions- An Example of Three Types of Long-term Care Facilities
指導教授:廖淑伶廖淑伶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:94
語文別:中文
論文頁數:176
中文關鍵詞:長期照護機構知覺風險涉入程度選擇意願
外文關鍵詞:long-term care facilitiesperceived risksinvolvementselection intentions
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人口高齡化和社會工商化導致老年人口增加,疾病型態慢性化,社會環境和家庭結構及功能改變,高齡者的照護問題,在開發國家中倍受重視,相對選擇入住長期照護機構的老人比率也逐年攀升,然而老化是生命的自然歷程,尊重老化就是尊重生命,而尊重老化則應包含可選擇、可參與和可負擔等方面之考慮,因此一旦消費者在面臨選擇長期照護機構過程中的因子,將是影響進住的偏好與意願的關鍵因素。因此本研究之主要目的為探討影響消費者對長期照護機構類型偏好及進住意願的相關因素,及瞭解消費者對長期照護機構的需求性、瞭解程度與概念,並選定機構特性、知覺風險、涉入程度及消費者個人因素等,作為探討之影響因子。以提供長期照護機構業者經營規劃之參考。
本研究採用結構式問卷及便利抽樣方式進行研究資料之收集,研究對象以新竹縣31-65歲縣民為主,有效樣本488份。將所得資料運用描述性統計、卡方檢定、平均數分析、獨立樣本t檢定、獨立樣本變異數分析、迴歸分析等統計方法進行資料分析。研究結果如下:
一、消費者對長期照護機構的需求性、瞭解程度及概念,大部分的消費者都認為老年生活是需要提早作規劃的,且在老年生活來臨時以選擇「與配偶居住」佔最多,居次為「與子女同住」。而且大部分的消費者都有聽過有關安養或照護機構,其中以有聽過「安養中心」為最多,而在日常生活中所接受過的相關訊息,最主要的來源是「朋友或親人告知」,但對長期照護機構是呈現不瞭解狀態,因此當有需要選擇進住長期照護機構時,都不確定自己(為親人)是否能找到適合的照護機構,每月照護金額在10,000-30,000元之間是可以接受的範圍。
二、消費者對長期照護機構進住意願,選擇「可能進住」的人為最多,而願意進住者原因排名順序為「不想成為子女負擔」、 「 健康狀況需有人照顧」「全天有專人可以照顧」」、「不想影響家人作息」;不願意進住者原因排名順序為:「我希望多與家人相處」、「我認為我沒有必要」、「健康狀況良好」、「會加重家庭經濟負擔」。
三、消費者對長期照護機構的關心程度,涉入分數集中於「39-50分」的人為最多。
四、消費者對長期照護機構特性之相關因素的重視程度,排序前三名為,「居住民眾身體有變化時,會立即送醫處理」、「足夠的照護人力」、「是否事先清楚告知完整的收費標準」。而排序最後的為「照護機構規模大小」為重視程度最低之因素。
五、消費者因素對長期照護機構類型偏好的影響,性別、家庭月收入、每月照護金額、機構特性(機構形象、工作人員、費用)、需求性、知覺風險(社會風險、財務風險)、涉入程度等因素與類型偏好有顯著差異。
六、消費者因素對長期照護機構選擇意願的影響,教育程度、每月照護金額、機構特性(機構形象)、需求性、知覺風險(社會風險)及涉入程度等因素與選擇意願有顯著差異。
The aging population and industrialization/commercialization of the society have resulted in growing senior population, chronicity of diseases, and changes in the social environment, family structures and functions. The issue of senior care has received a lot of attention in developed countries, and as a result, the percentage of senior citizens who choose to live in long-term care facilities has been increasingly growing every year. Aging is a natural process of life. To respect aging is to respect life. It includes the consideration for selectability, participability and affordability. Therefore, consumer decision-making and selection factors are key factors that affect their preferences and intentions of living in long-term care facilities. The objectives of this study are to examine the factors that affect consumer preferences and intentions of living in different types of long-term care facilities, to explore consumers’ need, understanding and concept of long-term care facilities, and to discuss the impact factors, including facility characteristics, perceived risks, involvement, and consumer personal factors, to provide valuable preferences for long-term care facilities.
This study employs a structured questionnaire and a convenience sampling method. The subjects in this study are citizens of Hsinchu County at the age of 31-65. A total of 488 valid questionnaires were collected. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test, independent samples t-test, independent samples
ANOVA, and regression analysis. The results of this study are as follows:
1).In terms of the need, understanding and concept of long-term care facilities, the majority of the consumers think that they need to make plans for their senior life in advance and choose to “live with their spouses” (the most) or to “live with their children” (the second most). Most consumers have heard about nursing homes (the most) or care facilities. Their main information source in daily life is “friends or relatives”. However, they do not have a good knowledge of long-term care facilities. Therefore, when they have a need to choose a long-term care facility, they are unsure if they can find an appropriate care facility for themselves (or for their relatives). The acceptable range of monthly care expense is NT$10,000-30,000.
2).In regard to the intentions of living in long-term care facilities, the most of the consumers choose “likely to consider”. The reasons for being willing to live in long-term care facilities, from highest rank to lowest, are: “do not want to be a burden of my children”, “my health needs to be taken care of”, “have someone to take care of me 24 hours a day”, and “do not want to affect the living patterns of my family”. The reasons for not being willing to live in long-term care facilities, from highest rank to lowest, are: “I want to spend more time with my family”, “I do not think it is necessary”, “my state of health is good”, and “will create an economic burden for the family”.
3).As for the consumers’ concerns about long-term care facilities, their involvement scores are mostly distributed in the range of “39-50 points”
4).In terms of the consumers’ emphasis on the characteristics factors of long-term care facilities, the top three are: “a resident will be immediately sent to hospital if he/she has a changed health status”, “sufficient care workforce”, and “whether the customer is clearly informed of the complete charging rates in advance”. The lowest rank of the emphasized factors is “care facility size”.
5).The factors that significantly affect the consumers’ preferences for different types of long-term care
facilities are: gender, monthly family income, monthly care expense,facility characteristics (facility image, staff, charge), need, perceived risks (social risks, financial risks), and involvement.
6).The factors that significantly affect the consumers’ selection intentions of long-term care facilities are: education background, monthly care expense, facility characteristics (facility image), need, perceived risks (social risks) and involvement.
書名頁 ……………………………………………………………………………… i
論文口試委員審定書 ……………………………………………………………… ii
授權書 …………………………………………………………………………… iii
中文提要 …………………………………………………………………………… iv
英文提要 …………………………………………………………………………… vi
誌謝 ………………………………………………………………………………… ix
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………… x
表目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………xii
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………xvi

第壹章 緒論………………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景 ………………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究動機……………………………………………………………… 5
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………………………… 9
第四節 研究範圍與研究流程………………………………………………… 9
第貳章 文獻探討 ………………………………………………………………… 11
第一節 長期照護相關文獻……………………………………………………11
第二節 民眾選擇就醫及醫療機構因素探討…………………………………34
第三節 知覺風險理論相關文獻………………………………………………39
第四節 涉入理論相關文獻……………………………………………………45
第五節 購買意願相關文獻……………………………………………………58
第六節 消費者特性相關文獻…………………………………………………66
第參章 研究方法……………………………………………………………………69
第一節 研究架構………………………………………………………………69
第二節 研究變數之操作型定義與衡量………………………………………72
第三節 研究假設………………………………………………………………78
第四節 問卷設計與抽樣方法…………………………………………………79
第五節 資料統計分析方法……………………………………………………81
第肆章 資料分析結果………………………………………………………………83
第一節 樣本基本資料描述性統計……………………………………………83
第二節 信度與效度……………………………………………………………91
第三節 選擇意願與資訊來源分析……………………………………………96
第四節 人口變數對行為變數分析………………………………………… 111
第五節 假設檢定…………………………………………………………… 122
第六節 結果整理與討論…………………………………………………… 146
第伍章 結論與建議……………………………………………………………… 147
第一節 研究結論…………………………………………………………… 147
第二節 實務貢獻與行銷建議……………………………………………… 151
第三節 研究限制…………………………………………………………… 158
第四節 後續研究方向建議………………………………………………… 158

參考文獻
一:中文部份……………………………………………………………………159
二、英文部份……………………………………………………………………164
附錄
附錄一:本研究正式問卷 ……………………………………………………171
一、中文部份
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