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研究生:賴雨祿
研究生(外文):Y.L.Lai
論文名稱:自主式無人載具多源訊號障礙迴避之研究
論文名稱(外文):Using Multi-Signal Sources for UGV Obstacle Avoidance
指導教授:石 大 明
指導教授(外文):T.M.Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防大學中正理工學院
系所名稱:兵器系統工程研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:軍事學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:自主式無人載具影像分析障礙迴避卡曼濾波器
外文關鍵詞:Unmanned Ground VehicleImage analysisObstacle avoidanceKalman Filter
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目前有關自主式無人載具以CCD攝影機察覺道路特徵,並藉由特徵訊息之回傳,以控制無人載具運動之研究繁多,但藉由影像辨識判斷分析路況特徵,常因環境中因子變動時常易造成誤判,如陰影、樹葉、反光物等。為增加辨識之準確性,本研究相較於以往偏重於影像分析之應用,並另增加雷射測距儀,並結合卡曼濾波器理論以提供測距多源資訊,同時應用於小型履帶式無人車障礙迴避運動控制之用。
Development of motion control of Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) by using CCD camera has been vastly studied. It is down by using road feature abstraction analysis. However, the correctness is most subjected to the variations of shadows, reflections, etc. To improve the correctness, in this research, a laser range finder is added to improve the judgment. The range information is processed by Kalman filter to give multiple signal resources as associated with image analysis. It shows the above method can be successfully adopted of UGV road following and obstacle avoidance control.
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………...ii
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………….iv
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………...v
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………….vii
符號說明……………………………………………………………………………...x
1. 緒論………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1文獻回顧與研究動機………………………….………………………………1
1.2系統設計與分析要點…………………………….…………………………....3
1.3現有開發成果……………………………………….………………………....3
1.4研究目標.………………………………………………………………………8
1.5研究架構.………………………………………………………………………8
2. 載具系統理論發展…………………………………………………………..…..10
2.1導航視覺………………………………………………………………………10
2.1.1影像量測之參數檢測………………………………………………….....10
2.1.2距離量測………………………………………………………...………..13
2.2 影像分析與影像校正.……………………………….……………………....15
2.3 卡曼濾波器(Kalman Filter)...............……………………..…18
3. 影像處理分析…………………………………………………………………....22
3.1彩色影像平面轉換…….…………………………………………….……..…23
3.2對比度擴張與直方圖轉換…..…………………...…………………….…..…25
3.2.1對比度擴張……………………………………………………………….25
3.2.2直方圖轉換...……………….…………………………………………….30
3.3影像之平滑與濾波.…………………………….………………………….…30
3.4影像尖銳化處理與邊緣檢測….…………………………………………..…36
3.4.1影像尖銳化.………………….……………...…………………………...36
3.4.2邊緣檢測…………………...………………………………………....….40
3.5影像分割….…………………………………………………….…………..…46
3.6質心法………………………………...…..……………………….……....….48
3.7霍式轉換法(Hough Transformation)……..……………………….……....….49
4實體系統開發………………….…………………..……………………….….......51
4.1系統架構設計………………………………….…………………….………..51
4.2硬體次總成介紹…………………………………………..…………………..53
4.2.1次總成特性說明…………………..……………………………………...53
4.2.2控制器發展軟、硬體……………………………………………………...54
4.3感測器方位校準………………………..……………………...……....……...55
4.4載台開發及測試………………………..……………………...……....……...57
5. 實驗結果分析…………………………………………………………………....61
5.1實驗結果……………………………………………………………….……..61
5.2影像處理結果…………………………………………………………...…....63
5.3障礙迴避………………………………………………………………...…....65
5.4定速設計………………………………………………………………...…....67
6. 結論與未來研究方向…………………………………………………………....69
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………….…70
自傳……………………………………………………………………………….…75
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