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研究生:李俊賢
研究生(外文):Lee Jan San
論文名稱:應用於微飛行器之無線影像及GPS信號回傳系統之研究
指導教授:李勝義李勝義引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防大學中正理工學院
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:96
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:微飛行器無人載具單晶片全球定位系統雙音複頻
外文關鍵詞:Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV)Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)Single ChipGlobal Positioning System (GPS)Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:5
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研發微飛行器通訊系統是一項極具挑戰性的任務,最主要的困難之處是必
須在有限的空間及載重限制下實現多種技術與介面的整合。本論文根據上述條
件限制,以雙音複頻信號調變及PIC 單晶片電路為基礎,研發出一個可以搭載
於微飛行器之無線影像及GPS 信號回傳系統,內容包括系統整合、電路分析及
實作等。經由實際的飛行測試,也證實我們所研發的系統可以正確的將所需資
料回傳。在系統性能分析方面,我們也根據回傳數據進行不同距離下的正確率
分析,以確定通道環境對於傳輸正確率的影響。本論文所研發的系統可作為未
來微飛行器的酬載以及建立微飛行器通信通道模擬之基礎測試平台。
The development of wireless communication system for micro air vehicle
(MAV) is a real challenge. The major difficulty lies in the fact that multi-tech and
hardware integration must be accomplished under the condition of limited space and
weight constrains. Based on DTMF modulation scheme and PIC circuit, this thesis
develops a wireless video and GPS signal downlink transmission system. The
development includes system integration, circuit analysis, as well as circuit
implementation. Practical flight test shows that the received signal is correct and the
developed circuit is applicable. For system performance analysis, the received signal
under different propagation distance is analyzed to obtain the correct rate and to
understand the effect of correct rate due to propagation environment. The developed
system can be used for the payload of MAV and the testboard to build the
communication channel model for MAV.
誌謝...............................................................................................................................ii
摘要..............................................................................................................................iii
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. iv
目錄............................................................................................................................... v
表目錄.........................................................................................................................vii
圖目錄........................................................................................................................viii
1. 緒論.......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 研究背景............................................................................................................ 1
1.2 研究目的............................................................................................................ 3
1.3 文獻及市場商品探討........................................................................................ 3
1.4 章節介紹............................................................................................................ 6
2. 無線影像及GPS 回傳架構..................................................................................... 7
2.1 系統架構............................................................................................................ 7
2.2 GPS 運作原理................................................................................................. 14
2.3 市售商品實測與評估...................................................................................... 18
3. 系統實作與測試.................................................................................................... 21
3.1 GPS 接收模組................................................................................................. 21
3.2 周邊電路控制器.............................................................................................. 26
3.3 RS232 與UART.............................................................................................. 28
3.3.1 RS232 與UART 的關係........................................................................ 28
3.3.2 RS232 與CMOS、TTL 準位比較........................................................ 29
3.3.3 電位轉換IC 的使用............................................................................... 30
vi
3.4 DTMF 信號傳輸電路..................................................................................... 31
3.4.1 DTMF 產生器與驅動程式的撰寫......................................................... 31
3.4.2 DTMF 接收器的介紹、驅動程式的撰寫及周邊電路的設置............ 34
3.4.3 NMEA 句子的選取與特定字元擷取與解讀....................................... 37
3.4.4 音頻測試結果........................................................................................ 41
3.5 製作實驗版...................................................................................................... 43
3.5.1 基礎實驗版製作.................................................................................... 43
3.5.2 可搭載於MAV 之實驗版..................................................................... 48
3.5.3 高可靠度之MAV 實驗版..................................................................... 53
3.6 靜態通信測試.................................................................................................. 56
3.6.1 背對背通信測試.................................................................................... 56
3.6.2 靜態下無線即時影像及數據通信測試................................................ 59
3.6.3 回傳信號品質之分析與探討................................................................ 61
3.7 動態通信測試.................................................................................................. 63
3.7.1 室內通信測試與調整............................................................................ 63
3.7.2 戶外通信測試........................................................................................ 64
3.7.3 即時飛行影像與數據通信測試............................................................ 67
4. 結論與未來展望.................................................................................................... 70
參考文獻..................................................................................................................... 73
自傳............................................................................................................................. 76
vii
表目錄
表2- 1 串列資料與輸出頻率對照表........................................................................ 12
表2- 2 無線影音收發系統實測紀錄表.................................................................... 18
表3- 1 GARMIN 15-L 模組預設句子與NMEA 輸出句最多字元表................... 22
表3- 2 各速率傳輸字元比較表................................................................................ 22
表3- 3 HOLUX GR-87 模組預設輸出句與NMEA 縮寫解說表........................... 22
表3- 4 $GPRMC 分段解說表................................................................................... 24
表3- 5 $GPGGA 分段解說表................................................................................... 24
表3- 6 RS232 收、發準位與信號對照表................................................................ 29
表3- 7 CMOS、TTL 與RS232 準位及信號的比較.............................................. 29
表3- 8 解碼後,各腳位的電位變化關係表........................................................... 36
表3- 9 背對背之通訊測試結果................................................................................ 59
表3- 10 不同距離下,辨識錯誤統計表.................................................................. 61
表3- 11 無線影音發射接收機配對測試結果.......................................................... 63
表3- 12 字元符號修改對照表.................................................................................. 64
表3- 13 座標回傳格式.............................................................................................. 64
表3- 14 不同距離下之座標接收錯誤率統計表..................................................... 65
viii
圖目錄
圖2- 1 2.4GHz 影像暨GPS 無線通訊系統整合架構圖........................................... 4
圖2- 2 市售追蹤器...................................................................................................... 5
圖2- 3 測試系統架構圖.............................................................................................. 8
圖2- 4 發射端架構相片.............................................................................................. 8
圖2- 5 接收端架構相片.............................................................................................. 8
圖2- 6 GPS 接收、編碼模組與天線.......................................................................... 9
圖2- 7 GPS 解碼模組................................................................................................ 10
圖2- 8 追蹤器運用系統架構圖................................................................................ 11
圖2- 9 按鍵與頻率對照圖........................................................................................ 13
圖2- 10 美國軍方所提出的資訊擷取架構圖.......................................................... 14
圖2- 11 由平面上,兩個已知點可得兩個交點(解)示意圖................................... 15
圖2- 12 地面接收GPS 信號接收示意圖................................................................. 16
圖2- 13 出發前畫面................................................................................................... 18
圖2- 14 至終點返回畫面.......................................................................................... 19
圖3- 1 UART 傳輸示意圖........................................................................................ 28
圖3- 2 感測資訊回傳平台系統架構圖.................................................................... 31
圖3- 3 HT9200 應用電路圖...................................................................................... 32
圖3- 4 HT9200 運作時序圖...................................................................................... 33
圖3- 5 MT8870 與HT9170 通用的應用電路圖..................................................... 34
圖3- 6 MT8870 運作時序圖..................................................................................... 35
圖3- 7 發射端mainT.c 程式碼................................................................................. 38
ix
圖3- 8 接收端mainR.c 程式碼................................................................................. 40
圖3- 9 實體連接圖.................................................................................................... 41
圖3- 10 解碼紀錄表.................................................................................................. 42
圖3- 11 GIS 顯示接收狀況....................................................................................... 42
圖3- 12 CCS PIC18F452 發展板腳位說明圖.......................................................... 44
圖3- 13 CCS PIC18F452 發展板電路圖.................................................................. 45
圖3- 14 我們所製作的#PIC00R 發展板與HOLUX GR-87................................... 46
圖3- 15 HT9200 通信模組(左),HIN232 電位轉換模組(右)................................ 47
圖3- 16 資訊回傳平台的發展電路(正面) ............................................................... 47
圖3- 17 資訊回傳平台的發展電路(鋪銅面) ........................................................... 48
圖3- 18 #PIC01R+HT9200+HIN232 發展板成品................................................... 49
圖3- 19 #PIC01R+HT9200+HIN232 發展板電路圖............................................... 50
圖3- 20 PIC01R+HT9200+HIN232 發展板鋪銅圖................................................. 50
圖3- 21 修改後電路電路板線路.............................................................................. 51
圖3- 22 MAV 用之感測資訊回傳平台運作實體圖................................................ 52
圖3- 23 接收端實體架構.......................................................................................... 52
圖3- 24 發展版#PIC02—28pin................................................................................. 54
圖3- 25 發射端HT9200 電路板及GPS 模組放置位置圖..................................... 55
圖3- 26 接收端MT8870 實體圖.............................................................................. 56
圖3- 27 商售追蹤器波形解析.................................................................................. 57
圖3- 28 背對背之通訊測試圖.................................................................................. 59
圖3- 29 30 公尺即時影像、錄音及辨識結果測試圖............................................. 60
圖3- 30 不同距離之音頻辨識錯誤率關係圖.......................................................... 62
圖3- 31 不同信雜比下之音頻辨識錯誤率關係圖.................................................. 62
x
圖3- 32 不同距離下之座標接收錯誤率統計圖...................................................... 66
圖3- 33 不同距離下的發射位置圖.......................................................................... 66
圖3- 34 連續座標回傳軌跡圖.................................................................................. 67
圖3- 35 UAV 通信系統裝置..................................................................................... 68
圖3- 36 地面端即時影像及GPS 信號畫面............................................................. 68
圖3- 37 UAV 座標回傳之軌跡圖............................................................................. 69
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