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研究生:蘇湘綉
研究生(外文):Hsiang-hsiu Su
論文名稱:文化差異、作業難度及規則口語化對知識分化的影響
指導教授:楊立行楊立行引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:臨床心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:作業難度文化差異類別學習知識分化規則口語化
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長久以來,專家知識(expertise)的研究傾向認為人們在專門領域內所習得的知識,總是結構完整又有系統性,且為了維持其內部邏輯的一致,隨著經驗與學習的增加,專家的知識表徵不斷被統整成更新、更完整的同質(homogeneous)結構。而這也是專家之所以被認為比新手來得優秀的地方。然而近期研究者發現,專家習得的知識可能不一定是統整的,而是被拆解成釵h部分,分別存放在獨立的模組(parcel)中,並由問題的情境(context)決定該使用哪個模組內的知識來解決當前的問題。Lewandowsky與Kirsner(2000)稱這種現象為知識分化(knowledge partitioning)。而後的研究陸續發現,除了專家知識外,函式學習(function learning)、以及類別學習(category learning)作業上也得到支持知識分化的證據。這顯示了知識分化很可能是學習歷程中的基本現象。然而Yang與Lewandowsky的類別學習研究(2003, 2004)顯示,並非全部的參與者都會進行知識分化。故此,本研究置如何提升知識分化現象的出現比例為研究重點,期能發現知識分化的可能成因。由於釵h研究指出,東方人較重視情境線索,因此實驗一以台灣學生為參與者,重複Yang與Lewandowsky(2004)的實驗,但並未發現有更多的知識分化現象。進而檢驗作業難度對知識分化的影響,結果支持作業難度上升時,知識分化現象也上升。實驗三則檢驗類別結構與規則之口語化程度對知識分化的影響。實驗發現參與者未出現研究所預期的知識分化現象,但仍自發性地以不同的方式分化並產生關於類別的知識,這顯示知覺刺激與類別結構之間的共變關係,對於參與者可能形成的分類策略,具有十分明顯的影響力。本研究結論認為,知識分化為學習的基本現象,應該不受文化因素的影響,但卻會因為作業難度增加而上升,回應了之前的推測:知識分化的出現是為了簡化作業的困難度(Lewandowsky, Kalish, & Ngang, 2002)。
緒論 1
專家知識 1
知識分化與函式學習 6
知識分化與類別學習 11
類別學習與規則口語化程度 15
認知推理與文化差異 16
研究目的 19
實驗一 21
參與者與儀器 22
刺激材料 22
實驗程序 23
練習階段 23
測驗階段 24
結果與討論 24
練習階段 24
測驗階段 25
實驗二 30
參與者與儀器 30
刺激材料 31
實驗程序 32
練習階段 32
測驗階段 32
結果與討論 32
練習階段 32
測驗階段 34
實驗三 37
參與者與儀器 38
刺激材料 38
實驗程序 39
練習階段與測驗階段 39
結果與討論 40
練習階段 40
測驗階段 41
實驗三A 44
結果與討論 44
練習階段 44
測驗階段 45
實驗三B 46
結果與討論 46
練習階段 46
測驗階段 47
實驗三A(修改類別結構) 50
實驗三B(修改類別結構) 53
綜合討論 58
附錄 72
分類學習的研究實驗指導語 73
國立中正大學心理學系受試者參與研究(實驗)同意書 74
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