(3.238.206.122) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/21 09:45
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李昆鴻
研究生(外文):Kun-Hung Lee
論文名稱:個別勞資爭議處理過程中影響談判行為因素之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis of Factors Influencing the Negotiation of Individual Labor Disputes
指導教授:傍~峰
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:勞工所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:協調調解談判議題立場與利益面子與人情關係第三方
外文關鍵詞:face and guanxinegotiationmediationconciliationthe third party.positions and interestsissues
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
  • 點閱點閱:794
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:203
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究擷取個別勞工與雇主間,因資遣費、職業災害補償不同類型的爭議個案各六個,針對當事者在透過協調或調解方式處理該爭議的談判過程中,對於影響其談判行為之因素進行分析。
首先,將每一個案的爭議緣起與協調或調解之過程進行描述,從雙方對話與互動情形觀察其談判行為之變化;繼而,從議題、立場與利益、第三方的角色與弁遄B面子與人情關係等因素,對於雙方談判行為之影響情形進行分析;最後,檢視談判行為之改變與分析其結果。
研究發現:資遣費爭議個案透過協調或調解方式處理的談判成必v,較之於職業災害補償爭議個案為低。探究其因,在於資遣費爭議個案,當事者在議題上無法產生共識難以定調,迫使談判停滯不前,是其談判失敗的主要關鍵;而職業災害補償爭議個案,在議題上雙方容易趨向讓步,而轉向補償金額的利益性協商,亦即將焦點放在利益的談判,雙方容易達成協議。
本研究結論中指出,職業災害補償金雇主可以藉由抵充制度,減少補償金的負擔,擴充談判可利用資源,對於談判的成它雪奶j的幫助;而民意代表或地方人士介入勞資爭議的談判,有效運用面子與人情關係的分配,則是我國勞資爭議處理談判過程中的一種特色。
Based on six cases of different disputes regarding the severance pay or occupational accident compensation, the aim of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the negotiation while interested parties conciliate or medi-ate their disputes.
First of all, the author describes the cause and the conciliating or medi-ating process of each case and interprets the negotiation according to the con-versations and interactions between both sides. Then the author examines the factors influencing the negotiating process such as issues, positions and inter-ests, the role and function of the third party, face, guanxi, etc. Finally the transformation and results of the negotiation are diagnosed.
The finding is the odds of negotiations of conciliating or mediating the severance pay disputes are less than the occupational accident compensation disputes. The reason is that negotiations of the severance pay disputes are al-ways ceased moving when interested parties can not have common view of their issues. However, both sides of the occupational accident compensation dispute always make mutual concessions to their issues and then move on to their interests to achieve their agreements.
In conclusion, employers can reduce the burden of occupational accident compensation by the substitute regulation in order to expand their negotiating resources and increase the odds. Moreover one characteristic of the negotiation of labor disputes in Taiwan is the interposition of governmental representatives or local personalities exerting their face and guanxi.
目 錄

中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………………………ii
圖 目 錄 ……………………………………………………………………iv
表 目 錄 ……………………………………………………………………v
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的 ………………………………………………1
第二節 研究問題 ………………………………………………………3
第三節 研究方法與限制 ………………………………………………6
第四節 章節安排 ………………………………………………………9
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 勞資衝突與勞資爭議 …………………………………………11
第二節 談判定義與要素 ………………………………………………14
第三節 協調、調解意義與第三方角色與弁? ………………………16
第四節 面子與人情關係 ………………………………………………21
第三章 資遣費爭議案中談判行為之分析
第一節 個案一:A工業公司與張君 …………………………………29
第二節 個案二:B農機科技公司與黃君 ……………………………35
第三節 個案三:C企業公司與徐女士 ………………………………42
第四節 個案四:D企業行與陳君 ……………………………………47
第五節 個案五:E機械公司與吳君 …………………………………53
第六節 個案六:F醫院與羅女士 ……………………………………58
第七節 小 結 ………………………………………………………62
第四章 職業災害補償爭議案中談判行為之分析
第一節 個案一:A碾米廠與游君 ……………………………………67
第二節 個案二:B機械公司與蔡君 …………………………………75
第三節 個案三:C公司與劉女士母子 ………………………………81
第四節 個案四:D交通公司與周君 …………………………………89
第五節 個案五:E精密機械公司與曾君 ……………………………97
第六節 個案六:F保險公司與標女士 ………………………………102
第七節 小 結 ………………………………………………………107
第五章 結 論 ………………………………………………………113
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………119
參考文獻
中文部分
刁筱華譯(William L. Ury原著),2001,第三方:有效消弭衝突、開創和平對話(Getting to peace: Transforming Conflict at home, at work, and in the world),台北:高寶。
中華民國勞資關係協進會,1998,調處勞資爭議實務-斡旋、調解、仲裁,台北:中華民國勞資關係協進會。
王宗裕,2002,「勞資談判中第三者的角色與弁鄐妞膍s-以苗栗客運勞資爭議為例」,靜宜大學碩士論文,未出版。
王澤鑑,1998,「勞災補償與侵權行為損害賠償」,收錄於王澤鑑編,民法學說與判例,第三冊,台北:自版。頁158-205。
史尚寬,1978,勞動法原論,台北:自版。
朱瑞玲,1988,「中國人的社會互動:論面子的問題」,收錄於楊國樞編,中國人的心理,台北:桂冠。頁239-288。
行政院勞工委員會,2005,中華民國台灣地區勞動統計月報,12月,台北:行政院勞工委員會。
吳秀光,2001,政府談判之博奕理論分析,台北:時英。
李宏仁,2004,「調解制度與心理學之關聯」,台中技術學院學報,第5期,頁325-344。
周美伶、何友暉,1994,「從跨文化的觀點分析面子的內涵及其在社會交往中的運作」,收錄於楊國樞、余安邦合編,中國人的心理與行為:理念及方法篇(一九九二),台北:桂冠。頁205-254。
林文程,2000,中共談判的理論與實務-兼論台海兩岸談判,高雄:麗文。
金耀基,1988,「人際關係中人情之分析」,收錄於楊國樞編,中國人的心理,台北:桂冠。頁75-104。
徐正光,1991,「從異化到自主:台灣勞工運動的基本性格和趨勢」收錄於徐正光、宋文里合編,台灣新興社會運動,台北:巨流。頁103-125。
高義展,2002,「從中國人的人情關係談學校組織之管理策略」,初等教育學報,第15期,頁341-359。
張光正、嚴奇峰,1997,我國勞資談判影響因素之研究-從國民性格與權力結構探討,台北:華泰。
張國忠,2004,談判原理與實務,台北:前程。
張強,1992,談判學導論,成都:四川大學。
張強,2000,談判,台北:上游。
梁文傑、黃致遠譯(Solomon, Richard H原著),2000,索樂文報告-中國談判行為大剖析 (Chinese negotiating behavior: pursuing interests through 〝old friends〞),台北:先覺。
陳幸雄,2002,「高雄碼頭工人僱用改制談判中權利與戰術之研究」,國立中正大學碩士論文,未出版。
陳國鈞,1992,勞工問題,台北:三民。
陳繼盛,1994,勞工法論文集,台北:陳林法學文教基金會。
喬健,1982,「關係芻議」,社會及行為科學研究的中國化研討會論文集,台北:中央研究院,頁345-376。
程長志,2002,談判理論與實務,台北:科風。
費孝通,1991,鄉土中國,台北:唐山。
黃光國,1988,中國人的權利遊戲,台北:巨流。
黃光國,2005,「華人關係主義的理論建構」,收錄於楊國樞等編,華人本土心理學,上冊,台北:遠流。頁215-248。
黃建達,2000,「主管與部屬人際交換關係之決定要素及其對部屬工作態度影響之研究」,中央大學碩士論文,未出版。
黃國隆,高泉慶,蔡啟通,劉彥慶,2002,「企業內之關係類型、互動關係品質與衝突處理方式之關係」,第五屆國際華人心理學家學術研討會,台北:中央研究院。
黃坤祥,1992,「勞資爭議處理與外力參與之研究」,國立中山大學碩士論文,未出版。
黃程貫,2000,勞動法,台北:空中大學。
黃越欽,2000,勞動法新論,台北:翰蘆。
黃越欽,王惠玲,張其恆,1995,職災補償論-中美英德日五國之比較。台北:五南。
黃鈴媚,1997,「談判者的面子問題對口頭說服策略運用的影響」,世新學報,第7期,頁267-314。
黃囇莉,1999,人際和諧與衝突-本土化的理論與研究,台北:桂冠。
楊中芳與彭泗清,2005,「人際交往中的人情與關係:構念化與研究方向」,收錄於楊國樞等編,華人本土心理學,下冊,台北:遠流。頁483-520。
楊國樞,1988,中國人的心理,台北:桂冠。
楊國樞,1992,「中國人的社會取向:社會互動的觀點」,收錄於楊國樞編,中國人的心理與行為:理論及方法篇,台北:桂冠。頁87-142。
楊通軒,2005,「職業災害之賠償與補償」,收錄於焦興鎧等編,勞動基準法釋義─施行二十年之回顧與展望,台北:新學林。頁453-506。
葉柏廷,1996,決戰談判桌-談判、策略與遊戲理論,台北:遠流。
遲嫻儒,2003,「組織新進成員之上下形象管理策略運用與中國人Guanxi之相關性研究-以媒體組織從業人員為例」,國立交通大學碩士論文,未出版。
劉必榮,1998,談判聖經,台北:商周。
劉必榮,2000,劉必榮談談判藝術,台北:希代。
劉必榮,2001,談判,三版,台北:時報文化。
劉志鵬,1993,「民間中介團體協處勞資爭議之思考與評估」,勞資關係月刊,第12卷第6期,頁12-18。
劉麗真譯(Chester L. Karrass原著),1999,談判大師手冊:195則攻防經典 (Give and take: the Complete guide to negotiating strategies and tactics),二版,台北:麥田。
衛民,2000,「我國勞資爭議處理制度之探討-三階段之比較分析」,台灣社會安全五十年:勞資關係的回顧與前瞻國際學術研討會,台北:政治大學。
衛民與傍~峰,2005,勞資關係與爭議問題,台北:空中大學。
衛民與傍~峰,2006,勞資關係:平衡效率與公平,台北:前程。
鄭津津,2002,「我國勞資爭議處理制度之現況與檢討」,國立中正大學法學集刊,第6期,頁65-103。
鄭麗淑譯(Gerard I Nierenberg原著),1991,談判策略 (Fundamentals of Negotiation),台北:遠流。
鄧中堅,高永光,黃奎博,2003,政治溝通與談判技巧,台北:空中大學。
戴照煜,1983,談判談判,台北:長城國際。
謝安田,江復明,謝芳玲,王國欽,林明彥,2003,商業談判與協商,台北:空中大學。
謝國雄,1997,純勞動:台灣勞動體制諸論,台北:中央研究院。
鍾從定,1997,「國際談判中第三者的角色與弁酮膍s」。台北:行政院國家科學委員會研究計劃。
簡良機,1991,勞資爭議立法規範及處理制度之研究,台北:五南。
魏朝光,1994,「我國職業災害補償法制及其適用」,東海大學法學研究,第8期,頁303-327。
英文部分
Alexander, C. Norman. and Pat Lauderdal.1977.“Stituated Identities and Social Influence,”Sociometry 40: 225-233.
Bazerman, Max. H. 1985.“Norms of Distributive Justice in Interest Arbitration,”Industrial and Labor Relations Review 38: 558-570.
Bercovitch, Joacb. 1984.“Problems and Approaches in the Stady of Barganing and Negotiaion,”Political Sciencd 36: 120-149.
Bian, Yanjie and Soon Ang. 1997. “Guanxi Networks and Job Mobility in China and Singapore.”Social Forces 75 (3): 981-1005.
Bowie, Norman E and Freeman R. Edward. 1992. Ethics and Agency Theory. New York: Oxford University.
Brown, Bert. R. 1977.“Face-Saving and Face-Restoration in Negotiation,”in Negotiations: Social-Psychological Perspectives, eds. D. Druckman, Berverly Hills, CA: Sage. Pp. 270-300.
Brown, Bert R. 1993. “Saving Face,”in Negotiation: Readings, Exercises, and Cases, eds. Roy J. Lewicki, Joseph A. Litterer, David M. Saunders, and John W. Minton, Homewood, IL: IRWIN. Pp. 308-314.
Carnevale, Peter J. and Dean G. pruitt. 1992. “Negotiation and Madiation,”in Annual Review of Psychology, eds. Mark R. Rosenzweig and Lyman W. Porter, Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc 43: 531-582.
Carnevale, Peter J. D. 1986.“Strategic Choice in Mediation,”Negotiation Journal
2 (1): 41-56.
Carnevale, Peter J. D. and Edward J. Lawler. 1986.“Time Pressure and the Development of Integrative Agreements in Bilateral Negotiation,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 30: 636-659.
Cheng, Chang-Ying. 1986.“The Concept of Face and Its Confucian Roots,”Journal of Chinese Philosophy 13: 329-348.
Deutsch, Moron. and Krauss, R. 1962.“Studies of Interpersonal Bargaining,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 6: 52-76.
Deutsch, Morton and Robert M. Krass. 1962.“Studies of Interpersonal Bargaining,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 6: 52-76.
Donald, R DeGlopper. 1972. “Doing Business in Lukang.”in Economic Organizations in Chinese Society, ed W. E. Willmott, Stanford: Stanford University. Pp. 297-326.
Donohue, William A. 1981. “Analyzing Negotiation: Development of A Negotiation Interact System,”Human Communication Research 7: 273-287.
Donohue, William A. 1989. “Communicative Competence in Mediators,” in Mediation Research, eds. Kenneth. Kressel and Dean G. Pruitt, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 322-343.
Evans, Kenneth R. and Richard F. Beltramini. 1987.“A Theoretical Model of Comsumer Negotiated Pricing: An Orientation Perspective,”Journal of Markeing 51: 58-43.
Farh, Jiing-Lih, Anne S. Tsui, Katherine Xin, and Bor-Shiuan Cheng. 1998. “The Influence of Relational Demography and Guanxi: The Chinese Case,”Organization Science 9 (4): 471-487.
Fisher, Roger, William Ury, and Bruce Patton. 1991. Getting to Yes: Negotiating and Agreement Without Giving In. 2nded. London: Random House.
Goffman, Erving. 1955.“On Face-Work: An Analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction,”Psychiatry 18: 213-231.
Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, New York: Anchor.
Habeeb, William Mark. 1988. Power and Tactics in International Negotiation: How Weak Nations Bargain with Strong Nations. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University.
Harnett, Donald L. and Cummings, L. L. 1980. Bargaining Behavior. Hoston: Dame Publications.
Hiltrop, Jean Marie. 1989. “Factors Associated with Successful Labor Mediation,”in Mediation Research, eds. Kenneth. Kressel and Dean G. Pruitt, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 241-262.
Ho, David You-Fai. 1976.“On the Concept of Face,”American Journal of Sociology 81: 867-884.
Holsti, K. J. 1977. International Politics: A Framework for Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Hopmann, P. Terrence. 1996. The Negotiation Process and The Resolution of International Coflicts. Columbia South Carolina: University of South Corolina.
Hwang, Kwang-Kuo. 1987.“Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game,”American Journal of Sociology 92: 944-974.
Hwang, Kwang-Kuo. 1997. “Guanxi and Mientze: Conflict Resolution in Chinese Society,” Intercultural Communicaion Studies Ⅶ (I): 17-37.
Ikle, Fred Charles. 1964. How Nations Negotiate. New York: Harper and Row.
Jacobs, J. Burce. 1979.“A Preliminary Model of Particularistic Ties in Chinese Political Alliances: Kan-Ching and Kuan-hsi in a Rural Taiwanese Township,” The China Quarterly 78: 237-273.
Jensen, Lloyd. 1984. “Negotiating Strategic Arms Control,”Journal of Conflict Resolution 28: 535-559.
Jensen, Michael C. and Willian H. Meckling. 1976.“Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure,”Journal of Financial Econonics 3: 305-360.
Karrass, Chester L. 1970. The Negotiating Game. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Katz, Harry C. and Thomas A. Kochan. 2000. An Introduction to Collective Bargaining and Industrial Relations. 2nded. New York: McGraw - Hill.
Kelley Harold H. 1979. Personal Relationships. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Kennedy, G. 1998. The New Negotiating Edge: The Behavioral Approach for Results and Relationship. London: Nicholas Brealey publishing.
King, Ambrose Yeo-Chi. 1991. “Kuan-hsi and Network Building: A Sociological Interpretaion,”Daedalus 20: 63-84.
Komorita, S. S. and Arline R. Brenner. 1968. “Bargaining and Concession Making Under Bilateral Monopoly,” Journal of Personality and Social Psyhology 9:15-20.
Korpi, Walter. 1983. The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Kressel, Kenneth and Dean G. Pruitt. 1989. Mediation Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Lax, David A. and James K. Sebenius. 1986. The Manager as Negotiator: Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York: The Free.
Lax, David A. and James K. Sebenius. 1986. The Manager as Negotiatior: Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York: The Free.
Lewicki, Roy J. and Joseph A. Litterer. 1985. Negotiation. Homewood, IL: IRWIN.
Lewicki, Roy J., David M. Saunders, and John W. Minton. 1999. Negotiaion. 3rded New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lim, Rodney G. and Peter J. D. Carneval. 1990. “Contingencies in The Mediation of Disuptes,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58: 259-272.
Ma, Ringo and Rueyling Chuang. 2001.“persuasion Strategies of Chinese College Students in Interpersonal Contexts,”Southern Communication Jorunal 66 (4): 267-278.
Moore, Christopher W. 1986. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. San Francisco, CA: Tossey-Bass.
Newton, D. A and Burgoon, J. K. 1990.“The Use and Consequences of Verbal Influence Strategies During Interpersonal Disagreements,”Human Communicaion Research 16: 477-518.
Park, Seung Ho and Yadong Luo. 2001. “Guanxi and Organizational dynamics: Organizational Networking in Chinese Firms,”Strategic Management Journal 22: 455-477.
Patchen, Martin. 1987.“Strategies for Eliciting Cooperation From an Adversary: Laboratory and Internation Fidings,”Journal of Conflict Resolution. 31: 164-191.
Provis, C. 1996. “Interests vs. Postitions: Acritique of the Distinction,”Negotiation Journal 12: 305-324.
Provis, C. 1996.“Interests vs. Positions: A Critique of the Distinction,”Negotiation Journal 12: 305-324.
Pruitt, Dean G. 1981. Negotiation Behavior. New York: Academic.
Pruitt, Dean G. 1983. “Strategic Choice in Negotiation,”The American Behavioral Scientist 27 (2): 167-194.
Pruitt, Dean G. and Peter J. Carnevale. 1993. Negotiation in Social Coflict. Buckingham: Open University.
Putnam, Linda L. and Tricia S. Jones. 1982. “Reciprocity Negotiations: An Analysis of Bargaining Interaction,” Communication Monographs 49: 171-191.
Raiffa, Howard. 1982. The Art and Science of Negotiation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Riggs, C. James. 1983.“Dimensions of Organizational Conflict: A Functional Analysis of Communication Tactics,”in Communication Yearbook 7, eds. Robert N. Bostrom, Beverly Hills CA: Sage. Pp. 517-531.
Roloff, Michael E. and Jerry M. Jordan.1992.“Achieving Negotiation Goals: The Fruits and Foibles of Planning Ahead,”in Communication and Negotiation, eds. Linda L. Putnam, Michael E Roloff, and Newbury park, CA: sage. Pp21-45.
Rubin, Jeffrey Z. and Bert R. Brown. 1975. The Social Psychology of Bargaining and Negotiation. New York: Academic.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1980. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Steers, Richard M. and Black J. Stewart. 1994. Organizational Behavior. 5rded. New York, NY: Harper College Publishers.
Thibaut, Tohn W. and Harold H. Kelley. 1986. The Social Psychology of Groups. New York: Wiley.
Thomas, Kenneth W. 1977. “Toward Multi-Dimensional Values in Teaching: The Example of Conflict Behaviors,”Academy of Management Review 2 (3): 484-490.
Thomas, Kenneth W. 1992.“Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organization,”in Handbook of Indusrial and Organizational Psychology, eds. M. D. Dunnette and L. H. Hough. Palo. Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Pp. 651-718.
Thomas, Kenneth. 1976.“Conflict and Conflict Management,”in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. Marvin D. Dunnette, Chicago: Rand McNally. Pp. 889-935.
Thompson, Leigh L. 1998. The Mind and Heart of The Negotiator. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River.
Ting-Toomy, Stella. 1990.“Intergroup Diplomatic Communication: A Face-Negotiaion Perspective,”in Communicating for Peace: Diplomacy and Negotiation International and Intercultural Communicaion Annual, eds. F. Korzenny and S.Ting-Toomey, Newbury Park,CA Sage. Pp. 77-95.
Tinsley, C. H. 1996.“Understanding Conflict in Other Culture Contexts: The Chinese Example,”Paper Presented at the International Association of Coffict Management Conference at Cornell University, Ithaca. Nwe York, June15.
Touval, Saadia and I. Willian Zartman. 1989. International Mediatio in Theory and Practice. Boulder Color: Westvies.
Touval, Saadia. 1982. Peace Brokers. New Jersey: Princeton University.
Tracy, Karen. 1990.“The Many Faces of Facework,” in Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, eds. Howard Giles and W. Peter Robinson, New York: John Wiley. Pp. 209-226.
Tracy, Karen. and Nikolas Coupland.1990.“Multiple Goals in Discourse: An Overview of Issues,”Journal of Language and Social Psychology 9: 1-13.
Wall, James A. Jr. 1985. Negotiation: Theory and Practice. Glenview, IL: scott, Foresman and Co.
Wall, James A. Jr. 1990. “Managers in The Peoples''s Republic of China,”Academy of Management Executive 4 (2): 19-32.
Walton, Richard E. and Robers B. McKersie.1991. A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiaions: An Analysis of a Social Interaction System. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Xin, Kathering R. and Jone L. Pearce. 1996. “Guanxi: Connections As Substitutes for Formal Institutional Support,”Acadermy of Management Journal 39 (6): 1641-1658.
Yan, Yunxiang. 1996.“The Culture of Guanxi in a North China Village,”The China Journal 35: 1-25.
Yao, Esther Lee. 1988.“Bargaining Face-to-Face with the Chinese,”Business Marketing 28: 64-65.
Yeung, Irene Y. M and Rosalie L. Tung. 1996.“Achieving Business Success in Confucian Societies: The Importance of Guanxi (Connections),” Organizational Dynamics Autumn: 54-65.
Yukl, Gary. 1974. “Effects of The Opponent''s Initial Offer, Concession Magnitude, and Concession Frequency on Bargaining Behavior,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30: 323-335.
Zartman, I. William and Maureen R.Berman. 1982. The Pracical Negotiator. New Haven: Yale University.
Zartman, I. William. 1978. The Negotiation Process: Theories and Applications. Beverly Hills, CA: sage.
Zartman, I. William. 1983. The 50% Solution. New Haven: Yale University.
Zubek, Josephine M, Dean G. Pruitt, Robert S. Peirce, Neil B. McGillicuddy, and Helena Syna. 1992. “Disputant and Mediator Behaviors Affecting Short-Term Success in Mediation,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 36: 546-572.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔