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研究生:曾禎雅
研究生(外文):Chen-Ya Tseng
論文名稱:任務型教學在國小英語教學的運用
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Effect of Task-based Instruction on Primary School EFL Students
指導教授:林惠玲林惠玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huei-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國文學所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:國小英語教學任務型教學
外文關鍵詞:English teaching at Primary schoolTask-based InstructionEFL
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摘要
任務型教學在國小英語教學的運用
本研究主要在比較國小英語教學中,任務型教學(實驗組)及傳統以老師教學為主導、大班教學(對照組)的成效。此外,研究者也進一步調查參與實驗組的學生對任務型教學的認知,包含知識、情意發展、社會技巧三方面。最後,更探討了幾個可能影響國小任務型教學的要素,如班級常規經營、學生學習動機、教師教學理念等。
此研究參與對象是彰化某國小兩班三年級學生,參與教學者同時也是本論文研究者。資料蒐集包含課室觀察、前後測、問卷、老師反省日誌。課室觀察持續約兩個月,每週一堂課(40分鐘),每堂課都有錄影,便於課後的逐字稿轉錄。資料分析包含質的分析和量的分析。
研究過程以t測驗來分析前後測,問卷則是逐題分析。研究發現,在任務型教學中,高分組在聽、說、讀、寫各方面,低分組則在說的方面,有顯著進步;中分組雖然沒有顯著進步,但參與者認同他們藉由任務型教學,在情意發展、社會技能上有進步;在影響國小任務型教學的要素上,教師的理念主導了教學的方向,班級常規經營及學生學習動機也決定了教學的成本P否。研究結果顯示,任務型教學佐以合作教學,確實能促進學生在多元發展上的互動,但傳統式教學在聽、說、讀、寫技巧上也有其優點。研究最後,也對未來有志於國小任務型教學研究者提出方向和建議。
ABSTRACT
A Study of the Effect of Task-based Instruction
on Primary School EFL Students
This study aims to compare the effects of task-based instruction (TBI) and traditional teacher-led, whole class instruction at two primary school classrooms in Changhua in terms of the four-skill performances of the students. In addition, the researcher made further investigation on participants’ perceptions on TBI. Also, the factors that influenced the implementation of TBI at primary school were discussed. Participants in this study were the teacher researcher and two third-grade primary school classes. The data collected for this study were from classroom observations, pre- and post-tests, questionnaires, and reflective journals. Classroom observations were 40-minute lessons for two months, once per week, and were videotaped and verbatim transcribed. Analysis included both statistic quantitative and qualitative analysis.
The results were presented with t tests on pre- and post-tests, and analysis of questionnaires. Furthermore, the influential factors on TBI, disciplines, students’ motivation, and teachers’ belief, were explored. The findings indicated high achievers’ four-skill ability and low achievers’ speaking ability in the experimental group achieved significant gains.
The study concludes that, speaking of four-skill performance, TBI benefited only high achievers, and low achievers in their speaking skill. However, most participants in TBI agreed not only their four-skill performance but also their affective development and social skills had improved.
TABLE of CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………......i
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………..……ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………….…….....…iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………..….……iv
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….….…vii
LIST OF CHARTS……………………………………………………………..………ix

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study…………………………………………………………......1
Motivation of the Study……………………………………………………………....4
Purpose and Research Questions of the Study……………………………………..6
Definitions of the Terms……………………………………………………………...7
Overview of the Study……………………………………………………………......8

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Language Learning for Children at Primary School………………………………10
A.Classroom Management…………………………………………………............11
B.Students’ Motivation…………………………………………………….........12
C.Teachers’ Belief………………………………………………………….........14
Task-based Instruction (TBI)……………………………………………………..…16
A.Current Developing of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)…..….....17
1.Li’s Research………………………………………………………..............18
2.Nunan’s Research………………………………………………….. ............20
B.Task-based Instruction……………………………………………………........21
1.Notion of ‘Task’……………………………………………….……...........21
2.Varieties of Tasks—Task Types……………………………………............24
3.The Framework of TBI ……………………………………………...............25
4.Task Components..…….…..…………………………………….….............26
5.Characteristics of TBI………………………………………….……...........27
6.TBI for Young Learners……………………………………….…….............27
Cooperative Learning in Task-based Instruction…………………………………29
A.Definition and Elements of CL…………………………………….……........29
B.The Characteristics and Advantages of CL.………………..……….……....30
TBI in Asia………………………………………………………………….….….....33
A.Task-based Instruction in Hong Kong……………………………..….…......33
1.Carless’s Research (2002)……………………………………………..........33
2.Carless’s Research (2003)……………………………………………..........35
B.Task-based Instruction in Taiwan……………………………….……….......36
1.Luo’s Research (2003)………………………………………………............36
2.P. J. Huang’s Research (2004)…….………………..………….……........37
3.Wu’s Research (2003)……………………………………….………............37
4.Lee’s Research (2005)……………………………………………..............38
Summary……………………………………………………………………..…….......38

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

The Pilot Study…………………………………………………………………….....41
A.Participants………………………………………………………………..........42
B.Results………………………………………………………………….............42
1.The Questionnaire…………………………………………………...............42
2.The Interview…………………………………………………….…..............43
C.Conclusion………………………………………………………….……...........44
D.Limitations………………………………………………………….……..........45
The Present Study………………………………………………………………….....46
A.Participant Selection…………………………………………………….........46
1.Setting………………………………………………………………...............46
2.Participants……………………………………………………….….............47
a.The Teacher……………………………………………………...................47
b.The Students……………………………………………….…...................47
(1)General Class Structure…………………………………....................47
(2)Class A (The Experimental Group)………………………...................47
(3)Class B (The Control Group)……………………………....................49
B.Research Design……………………………………………………….…..........51
1.Grouping………………………………………………………..…................51
2.Instructional Design……………………………………………….. ...........54
C.Data Collection and Analysis……………………………………………........58
1.Data Collection…………………………………………………..….............59
a.Classroom Observation………………………………….……..................59
b.Pre-test and Post-test………………………………….….……..............60
c.Background Questionnaire and Perception Questionnaire…….............62
d.Reflective Journal……………………………………..…….…...............63
2.Data Analysis……………………………………………….………..............64
Summary……………………………………………………………….…….….…......66

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Results………………………………………………………………………….…......68
A.The Comparison of Four-skill Performance between TBI and Traditional Instruction………………………………………………………….……............69
B.Participants’ Perceptions on TBI……………………………………..….....73
C.The Factors Influencing the Implementation of TBI…………………….....85
Discussion…………………………………………………………………………......89
A.Four-skill Performance of TBI and Traditional Instruction……………….89
B.Participants’ Perceptions on TBI……………………………………..….....91
C.The Factors Influencing the Implementation of TBI…………………..…...92
Summary………………………………………………………………….………........94
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION

Summary of the Study………………………………………………………..……....97
Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………………..…....101
Limitation of the Study……………………………………………………..……...102
Suggestions for Future Study...……………………………………………..…….104
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