跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.124.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 08:00
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡幸雯
研究生(外文):Hsin-Wen,Tsai
論文名稱:探討在鼠腦星狀細胞中日本腦炎病毒感染誘導基質金屬蛋白酶-9表現的機制
論文名稱(外文):Mechanisms of Japanese encephalitis virus-induced matrix metalloproteinases-9 expression in rat brain astrocytesMechanisms of Japanese encephalitis virus-induced matrix metalloproteinases-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes
指導教授:楊春茂楊春茂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chuen-Mao,Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:基礎醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:日本腦炎病毒鼠腦星狀細胞基質金屬蛋白酶九型
外文關鍵詞:Japanese encephalitis virusRBA-1 cellsMMP-9
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:87
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
中文摘要
日本腦炎病毒屬於黃質病毒屬,為一具有外套膜的正向單股RNA病毒,其基因體約有11 kb。在東南亞地區,日本腦炎病毒的感染常會導致兒童發生急性腦炎。至目前為止,日本腦炎病毒所引起的腦部發炎機制不明。本篇論文針對鼠腦星狀細胞(RBA-1 cells)來探討:Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) 以及 Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) 這些訊號傳遞路徑如何參與日本腦炎病毒誘導MMP-9的表現。當細胞被前處理MEK1/2 的抑制劑(U0126), p38的抑制劑(SB203580)及c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)的抑制劑(SP600125)之後,利用gelatin zymography、西方墨點法以及reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)分析,我們可以看到:日本腦炎病毒的確可以使p42/p44 MAPK,p38及JNK磷酸化,而這三種MAPKs的磷酸化反應及MMP-9的表現也都分別受到U0126,SB203580 及SP600125的抑制。此外,MMP-9的mRNA和蛋白質的表現亦會分別被下列抑制劑部分抑制,包括:protein kinase C的抑制劑(Ro-318220,Gö-6976及rottlerin), Src的抑制劑(PP1),PDGFR的抑制劑(AG1296),PI3-K的抑制劑(LY294002), NF-κB的抑制劑(helenalin), AP-1的抑制劑(Curcumin)等。同時,當細胞被轉殖(transfection)ERK, JNK, p85, Akt, NIK, IKKα, IKKβ的dominant negative 突變株之後,也分別抑制了JEV所調控的MMP-9 表現。當進一步使用西方墨點法 (Western blot)的方式探討Akt, PDGFR及c-Src之間上下游的關係後發現,c-Src可藉由轉活化PDGFR而活化Akt。再者,使用次細胞分離法、免疫螢光染色法以及報告基因分析法,可確定受JEV刺激後IκB-α分解,進而促使NF-κB轉位至核中,而活化基因表現。NF-κB的轉位作用,會被helenalin, SP600125 ,U0126 及SB203580所抑制。藉由CHIP分析,我們也證實轉錄輔因子p300也包含在MMP-9基因的調控。另外,我們發現另一個轉錄因子AP-1亦參與此MMP-9表現路徑。本篇論文的結果,對於JEV誘導鼠腦星狀細胞基質金屬蛋白酶九型的表現和發炎的調控,除了增加了解兩者之間機轉上的關係,進而可以對於治療腦部疾病有更多的幫助。
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, contains an ~11 kb single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. JEV infection commonly affects children and is a major cause of acute encephalopathy in several parts of Southeastern Asia. Currently, the detailed mechanisms underlying the inflammatory action of JEV are largely unclear. This study demonstrated that in RBA-1 cells, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways participate in MMP-9 expression induced by JEV. Zymographic, Western blotting, and RT-PCR analyses showed that JEV increased expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein, which was inhibited by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125). JEV also stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 and JNK which was attenuated by U0126, SB203580 and SP600125, respectively. In addition, JEV-induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of PKC (Ro-318220, Gö-6976 or rottlerin), c-Src (PP1), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3-K (LY294002), NF-κB (helenalin) and AP-1 (Curcumin). The sequential phosphorylation-stiumlated by JEV of c-Src, PDGFR, and Akt indicated that activation of Akt was mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of PDGFR determined by Western blot. Moreover, JEV-stimulated degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, NF-κB activity was revealed by Western blot , immnofluorescence staining, and reporter gene activity assay which was blocked by helenalin, U0126, SB203580 and SP600125. Transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK, p38, JNK, p85, Akt, NIK, IKKα, or IKKβ also inhibited JEV-induced MMP-9 expression. Moreover, the transcription coactivator p300 involved in MMP-9 gene regulation was determined by CHIP assay. In addition, the other transcription factor AP-1 was also involved in this pathway. Results obtained in this study provide more understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying JEV-induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells. These results reveal more intact information of patho-physiological processes of brain events, and prove beneficial in the therapeutic management of inflammatory disease.
目錄 (Contents)......................................................і
縮寫表 (Abbreviations)..............................................іі
抑制劑表 (Inhibitors)................................................v
中文摘要 (Abstract in Chinese)......................................vi
英文摘要 (Abstract in English).....................................vii
緒論 (Introduction)..................................................1
材料跟方法 (Materials and methods)...................................32
實驗結果 (Results)..................................................43
PARTⅠ:Signaling components which participate in JEV-induced
MMP-9 expression in RBA1cells..............................43
PARTⅡ: Transactivation of protein tyrosine kinases pathway
participates in JEV- induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1
cells......................................................51
PART Ⅲ: JEV-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through NF-κB and
regulated by p300 and histone.............................56
PART IV: PKC and MAPKs regulate AP-1-mediated MMP-9 expression in
response to JEV in RBA-1 cells............................61
PART V: JEV-induced cytokines released from RBA-1 cells............64
圖表 (Figure legends)...............................................66
討論 (Discussion)..................................................109
參考文獻 (Reference)...............................................116
Reference List:
Abraham S and Manjunath R. (2006) Induction of classical and nonclassical MHC-I on mouse brain astrocytes by Japanese encephalitis virus. Virus Res. 119:216-220.
Alvarez-Maubecin V, Garcia-Hernandez F, Williams JT,and Van Bockstaele EJ. (2000) Functional coupling between neurons and glia. J Neurosci. 20:4091-4098.
Araque A, Parpura V, Sanzgiri RP, and Haydon PG. (1999) Tripartite synapses: glia, the unacknowledged partner. Trends Neurosci. 22:208-215.
Asahi M, Asahi K, Jung JC, del Zoppo GJ, Fini ME,and Lo EH. (2000) Role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in focal cerebral ischemia: effects of gene knockout and enzyme inhibition with BB-94. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 20:1681–1690.
Asahi M, Wang X, Jung J, Mori T, Sumii T, Moskowitz MA, Fini ME, and Lo EH. (2001) Effects of matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene knockout on the proteolysis of blood–brain barrier and white matter components after cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 21:7724–7732.
Baker AH, Edwards DR, and Murphy G. (2002) Metalloproteinase inhibitors: biological actions and therapeutic opportunities. J Cell Sci. 115:3719–3727.
Baruch RR, Melinscak H, Lo J, Liu Y, Yeung O, and Hurta RA. (2001) Altered matrix metalloproteinase expression associated with oncogene-mediated cellular transformation and metastasis formation. Cell Biol Int.25:411-420.
Bennett BL, Sasaki DT, Murray BW, O'Leary EC, Sakata ST, Xu W, Leisten JC, Motiwala A, Pierce S, Satoh Y, Bhagwat SS, Manning AM, and Anderson DW.(2001) SP600125, an anthrapyrazolone inhibitor of Jun N-terminal kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 98:13681-13686.
Bian ZM, Elner SG, Yoshida A, Kunkel SL, Su J, and Elner VM. (2001) Activation of p38, ERK1/2 and NIK pathways is required for IL-1 and TNF--induced chemokine expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 73:111–121.
Brazil DP, Yang ZZ, and Hemmings BA. (2004) Advances in protein kinase B signalling: AKTion on multiple fronts. Trends Biochem Sci. 29: 233–242.
Brew K, Dinakarpandian D, and Nagase H. (2000) Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: evolution, structure and function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1477:267–283.
Burysek L, Yeow WS, and Pitha PM. (1999) Unique properties of a second human herpesvirus 8-encoded interferon regulatory factor (vIRF-2). J Hum Virol. 2:19–32.
Caamano J and Hunter CA. (2002) NF-kappaB family of transcription factors: central regulators of innate and adaptive immune functions. Clin Microbiol. 15:414– 429.
Cantley LC. (2002) The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Science. 296: 1655–1657.
Chakrabarti S and Patel KD. (2005) Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in pulmonary pathology. Exp Lung Res. 31:599-621.
Chakraborti S, Mandal M, Das S, Mandal A,and Chakraborti T. (2003) Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases: an overview. Mol Cell Biochem.253:269-285.
Chambaut-Guérin AM, Hérigault S, Rouet-Benzineb P, Rouher C, and Lafuma C. (2000) Induction of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 (92-kDa gelatinase) by retinoic acid in human neuroblastoma SKNBE cells: relevance to neuronal differentiation. J Neurochem. 74:508-517.
Chang L and Karin M. (2001) Mammalian MAP kinase signaling cascades. Nature. 410: 37–40.
Chen CC, Chen JJ, and Chou CY. (2000) Protein kinase calpha but not p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is required for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression mediated by interleukin-1beta: involvement of sequential activation of tyrosine kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB-inducing kinase, and IkappaB kinase 2. Mol Pharmacol. 58:1479-1489.
Chen CJ, Chen JH, Chen SY, Liao SL, and Raung SL. (2004) Upregulation of RANTES gene expression in neuroglia by Japanese encephalitis virus infection. J Virol. 78:12107-12119.
Chen CJ, Liao SL, Kuo MD, and Wang YM. (2000) Astrocytic alteration induced by Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Neuroreport. 11:1933-1937.
Chen LF, Williams SA, Mu Y, Nakano H, Duerr JM, Buckbinder L, and Greene WC. (2005) NF-kappaB RelA phosphorylation regulates RelA acetylation. Mol Cell Biol. 25:7966-7975.
Chesler DA and Reiss CS. (2002) The role of IFN-gamma in immune responses to viral infections of the central nervous system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.13:441-454.
Chiao PJ, Na R, Niu J, Sclabas G.M, Dong Q, and Curley SA. (2002) Role of Rel/NF-kB transcription factors in apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer. 95:1696-1705.
Cho A, Graves J, and Reidy MA. (2000) Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 20:2527–2532.
Choudhary S, Boldogh S, Garofalo R, Jamaluddin M, and Brasier AR. (2005) Respiratory syncytial virus influences NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression through a novel pathway involving MAP3K14/NIK expression and nuclear complex formation with NF-kappaB2. J Virol. 79:8948-8959.
Chung TW, Lee YC,and Kim CH. (2004) Hepatitis B viral HBx induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression through activation of ERK and PI-3K/AKT pathways: involvement of invasive potential. FASEB J. 18:1123-1125.
Cooray S. (2004) The pivotal role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signal transduction in virus survival. J Gen Virol. 85:1065–1076.
Crocker SJ, Pagenstecher A, and Campbell IL. (2004) The TIMPs tango with MMPs and more in the central nervous system. J Neurosci Res. 75:1-11.
Cuzner ML and Opdenakker G. (1999) Plasminogen activators and matrix metalloproteinases, mediators of extracellular proteolysis in inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system. J Neuroimmunol. 94:1–14.
D'Addario M, Ahmad A, Morgan A and Menezes J. (2000) Binding of the Epstein±Barr virus major envelope glycoprotein gp350 results in the up-regulation of the TNF- gene expression in monocytic cells via NF-B involving PKC, PI3-K and tyrosine kinases. J Mol Biol.298:765-778.
Dawson CW, Tramountanis G, Eliopoulos AG, and Young LS. (2003) Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway to promote cell survival and induce actin filament remodeling. J Biol Chem. 278:3694–3704.
Diao J, Garces R, and Richardson CD. (2001) X protein of hepatitis B virus modulates cytokine and growth factor related signal transduction pathways during the course of viral infections and hepatocarcinogenesis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.12:189-205.
Ding M, Huang C, Lu Y, Bowman L, Castranova V, and Vallyathan V. (2006) Involvement of protein kinase C in crystalline silica-induced activation of the MAP kinase and AP-1 pathway. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 290: 291-297.
Eferl R and Wagner EF. (2003) AP-1: a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 3: 859-868.
Egeblad M and Werb Z. (2002) New functions for the matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression. Nat Rev Cancer. 2:161–174.
Esfandiarei M, Luo H, Yanagawa B, Suarez A, Dabiri D, Zhang J, and McManus BM. (2004) Protein kinase B/Akt regulates coxsackievirus B3 replication through a mechanism which is not caspase dependent. J Virol. 78:4289–4298.
Esteve PO, Chicoine E, Robledo O, Aoudjit F, Descoteauxt A, Potworowski E, and St-Pierre Y. (2002) Protein kinase C-Zeta regulates transcription of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene induced by IL-1 and TNF- in glioma cells via NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 277:35150–35155.
Favata MF, Horiuchi KY, and Manos EJ. (1998) Identification of a novel inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem. 273: 18623–18632.
Francois F and Klotman ME. (2003) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication following viral entry in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. J Virol. 77:2539–2549.
Franke TF, Hornik CP, Segev L, Shostak GA, and Sugimoto C. (2003) PI3K/Akt and apoptosis: size matters. Oncogene. 22:8983–8998.
Fukuda M and Longnecker R. (2004) Latent membrane protein 2A inhibits transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Virol. 78:1697–1705.
Gasche Y, Copin JC, Sugawara T, Fujimura M, and Chan PH. (2001) Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition prevents oxidative stress-associated blood–brain barrier disruption after transient focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.21:1393–1400.
Gasche Y, Fujimura Y, Copin J, Kawase M, Masengale J, and Chan PH. (1999) Early appearance of activated MMP-9 after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 19:1020–1028.
Genersch E, Hayess K, Neuenfeld Y, and Haller H. (2000) Sustained ERK phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for MMP-9 regulation in endothelial cells: involvement of Ras-dependent and –independent pathways. J Cell Sci. 23:4319-4330.
Ghosh S, May MJ, and Kopp EB. (1998) NF-B and Rel proteins: Evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol. 16: 225–260.
Griego SD, Weston CB, Adams J L, Tal-Singer R ,and Dillon SB. (2000) Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rhinovirus-induced cytokine production by bronchial epithelial cells. J Immunol. 165: 5211–5220.
Harkness KA, Adamson P, Sussman JD, Davies-Jones GA, Greenwood J, and Woodroofe MN. (2000) Dexamethasone regulation of matrix metalloproteinase expression in CNS vascular endothelium. Brain.123:698–709.
He Y, Nakao H, Tan SL, Polyak SJ, Neddermann P, Vijaysri S, Jacobs BL, and Katze MG. (2002) Subversion of cell signaling pathways by hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A protein via interaction with Grb2 and P85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Virol.76:9207-9217.
Heo JH, Lucero J, Abumiya T, Koizol JA, Copeland BR, and Zoppo GJ. (1999) Matrix metalloproteinases increase very early during experimental focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 19:624–633.
Hess J, Angel P, and Schorpp-Kistner M. (2004) AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony among siblings. J. Cell Sci. 117: 5965–5973.
Hildt E, Munz B, Saher G, Reifenberg K ,and Hofschneider PH. (2002) The PreS2 activator MHBs(t) of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice. EMBO J. 21: 525-535.
Hong S, Park KK, Magae J, Ando K, Lee TS, Kwon TK, Kwak JY, Kim CH, and Chang YC. (2005) Ascochlorin inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by suppressing activator protein-1-mediated gene expression through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway: inhibitory effects of ascochlorin on the invasion of renal carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 280: 25202-25209.
Iwasaki Y, Zhao JX, Yamamoto T, and Konno H. (1986) Immunohistochemical demonstration of viral antigens in Japanese encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 70:79–81.
Jiang X, Namura S, and Nagata I. (2001) Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor KB-R7785 attenuates brain damage resulting from permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Neurosci Lett .305:41–44.
Jiang Y, Chen C, Li Z, Guo W, Gegner JA, Lin S, and Han J.(1996) Characterization of the structure and function of a new mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38beta). J Biol Chem. 271:17920-17926.
Johnson RA, Huong SM, and Huang ES. (2000) Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 by human cytomegalovirus infection through two distinct pathways: a novel mechanism for activation of p38. J Virol. 74: 1158–1167.
Johnson RA, Wang X, Ma XL, Huong SM, and Huang ES. (2001) Human cytomegalovirus up-regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway: inhibition of PI3-K activity inhibits viral replication and virus-induced signaling. J Virol. 75:6022–6032.
Kaur R and Vrati S. (2003) Development of a recombinant vaccine against Japanese encephalitis. J Neurovirol.4:421-431.
Kim H, Lee YH, Won J, and Yun Y. (2001) Through induction of juxtaposition and tyrosine kinase activity of Jak1, X-gene product of hepatitis B virus stimulates Ras and the transcriptional activation through AP-1, NF-B and SRE enhancers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.286: 886-894.
Kimelberg HK. (1995) Receptors on astrocytes--what possible functions? Neurochem Int. 26:27-40.
Kimura-Kuroda J, Ichikawa M, Ogata A, Nagashima K, and Yasui K. (1993) Specific tropism of Japanese encephalitis virus for developing neurons in primary rat brain culture. Arch Virol. 130:477–484.
Kliche S, Nagel W, Kremmer E, Atzler C, Ege A, Knorr T, Koszinowski U, Kolanus W, and Haas J.(2001) Signaling by human herpesvirus 8 kaposin A through direct membrane recruitment of cytohesin-1. Mol Cell. 7:833-843.
Korzus E, Nagase H, Rydell R, and Travis J. (1997) The mitogen-activated protein kinase and JAK-STAT signaling pathways are required for an oncostatin M-responsive element-mediated activation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 272:1188-1196.
Kujime K. (2000) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase regulate RANTES production by influenza virus-infected human bronchial epithelial cells. J Immunol. 164:3222–3228.
Laming PR, Kimelberg H, Robinson S, Salm A, Hawrylak N, Muller C, Roots B, and Ng K. (2000) Neuronal-glial interactions and behaviour. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 24:295-340.
Lee B and Moon SK. (2005) Resveratrol inhibits TNF--induced proliferation and matrix metalloproteinase expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. J Nutr. 135Z:2767-2773.
Lee CW, Lin CC, Lin WN, Liang KC, Luo SF, Wu CB, Wang SW, and Yang CM. (2007) TNF-alpha induces MMP-9 expression via activation of Src/EGFR,PDGFR/PI3K/ Akt cascade and promotion of NF-kappaB/p300 binding in human tracheal smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 292:L799-812.
Leppert D, Lindberg RL, Kappos L, and Leib SL. (2001) Matrix metalloproteinases: multifunctional effectors of inflammation in multiple sclerosis and bacterial meningitis. Brain Res Rev. 36:249-257.
Liou ML and Hsu CY. (1998) Japanese encephalitis virus is transported across the cerebral blood vessels by endocytosis in mouse brain. Cell Tissue Res.293:389-394.
Li Q and Verma IM. (2002) NF-kappaB regulation in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2 :725–734.
Ludwig S, Planz O, Pleschka S, and Wolff T. (2003) Influenza-virus-induced signaling cascades: targets for antiviral therapy? Trends Mol Med. 9:46-52.
Ludwig S. (2001) Influenza virus-induced AP-1-dependent gene expression requires activation of the JNK signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 276:10990–10998.
Ludwig S. (2002) The influenza A virus NS1 protein inhibits activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AP-1 transcription factors. J Virol. 76: 11166–11171.
Maeda H, Okamoto T, and Akaike T. (1998) Human matrix metalloprotease activation by insults of bacterial infection involving proteases and free radicals. J Biol Chem. 379:193-200.
Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S, Chakraborti T, and Sajal C. (2003) Clinical implications of matrix metalloproteinases. Mol Cell Biochem. 252:305-329.
Mannello F and Gazzanelli G. (2001) Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and programmed cell death: conundrums, controversies and potential implications. Apoptosis. 6:479–482.
Masters J, Hinek AA, Uddin S, Platanias LC, Zeng W, McFadden G, and Fish EN. (2001) Poxvirus infection rapidly activates tyrosine kinases signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 276:48371–48375.
May MJ and Ghosh S. (1998) Signal transduction through NF-kappa B. Immunol Today. 19:80– 88.
Mayr B and Montminy M. (2001) Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol.2: 599-609.
McCawley LJ and Matrisian LM. (2000) Matrix metalloproteinases: multifunctional contributors to tumor progression. Mol Med Today. 6:149–156.
McCawley LJ and Matrisian LM. (2001) Tumor progression: defining the soil round the tumor seed. Curr Biol. 11:R25–27.
Misse D, Esteve PO,and Renneboog B. (2001) HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 induces the MMP-9 cytopathogenic factor production that is abolished by inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Blood. 98:541–547.
Mogensen TH and Paludan S. (2001) Molecular Pathways in Virus-Induced Cytokine Production. Microbiology and Molecular Biology. 65:131-150.
Moon SK, Cha BY, and Kim CH. (2004) ERK1/2 mediates TNF--induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells via the regulation of NF-B and AP-1: Involvement of the ras dependent pathway. J Cell Physiol. 198: 417-427.
Morest DK and Silver J. (2003) Precursors of neurons, neuroglia, and ependymal cells in the CNS: what are they? Where are they from? How do they get where they are going? Glia. 43:6-18.
Morita-Fujimura Y, Fujimura M, Gasche Y, Copin J, and Chan PH. (1999) Overexpression of copper and zinc superoxide dismutase in transgenic mice prevents the induction and activation of matrix metalloproteinases after cold injury induced brain trauma. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 20:130–138.
Mukhopadhyay S, Kuhn RJ, and Rossmann MG. (2005) A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle. Nat Rev Microbiol.3:13-22.
Nair P, Somasundaram K, and Krishna S. (2003) Activated Notch1 inhibits p53-induced apoptosis and sustains transformation by human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncogenes through a PI3K-PKB/Akt-dependent pathway. J Virol. 77:7106–7112.
Naranatt PP, Akula SM, Zien CA, Krishnan HH, and Chandran B. (2003)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-PKC-zeta-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in target cells early during
infection: implications for infectivity. J Virol.77:1524-1539.
Nelson AR, Fingleton B, Rothenberg ML, and Matrisian LM. (2000) Matrix metalloproteinases: biologic activity and clinical implications. J Clin Oncol.18: 1135–1149.
Nguyen M, Arkell J, and Jackson CJ. (1999) Thrombin rapidly and efficiently activates gelatinase A in human microvascular endothelial cells via a mechanism independent of active MTI matrix metalloproteinase. Lab Invest.79:467-475.
Nguyen M, Arkell J, and Jackson CJ. (2000) Activated protein C directly activates human endothelial gelatinase A. J Biol Chem. 275:90-95.
Norman KL, Hirasawa K, Yang AD, Shields MA, and Lee PW. (2004) Reovirus oncolysis: the Ras/RalGEF/p38 pathway dictates host cell permissiveness to reovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 101:11099-11104.
Ogata Y, Enghild JJ, and Nagase H. (1992) Matrix metalloprioteinase 3 (stromelysin) activates the precursor for the human matrix metalloproteinase 9. J Biol Chem. 267:3581-3584.
Opdenakker G, Van den Steen PE, Dubois B, Nelissen I, Van Coillie E, Masure S, Proost P, and Van Damme J. (2001) Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology. J Leukoc Biol.69:851-859.
Page-McCaw A, Ewald AJ, and Werb Z. (2007) Matrix metalloproteinases and the regulation of tissue remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol.8:221-233.
Parekh BS and Maniatis T. (1999) Virus infection leads to localized hyperacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the IFN-beta promoter. Mol Cell. 3:125-129.
Parks WC, Wilson CL, and Lopez-Boado YS. (2004) Matrix metalloproteinases as modulators of inflammation and innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol.4:617-629.
Peng JM, Liang SM, and Liang CM. (2004) VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus induces apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. J Biol Chem.279:52168-52174.
Pfrieger FW and Barres BA. (1997) Synaptic efficacy enhanced by glial cells in vitro. Science. 277:1684-1687.
Popik W and Pitha PM. (1998) Early activation of mitogenactivated protein kinase kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in response to binding of simian immunodeficiency virus to Jurkat T cells expressing CCR5 receptor. Virology.252: 210–217.
Popik W and Pitha PM. (2000) Exploitation of cellular signaling by HIV-1: unwelcome guests with master keys that signal their entry. Virology. 276: 1–6.
Prejean CT, Sarma O, Kurnasov A, Usacheva B, Hemmings L, Cantley DA, Fruman L, Morrison A, Buller RM, and Colamonici OR. (2001) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase confers resistance to encephalomyocarditis and herpes simplex virus-induced cell death through the activation of distinct downstream effectors. J Immunol. 167:4553–4559.
Qi JH, Ebrahem Q, Moore N, Murphy G, Claesson-Welsh L, Bond M ,Baker A, and Anand-Apte B.(2003) A novel function for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3): inhibition of angiogenesis by blockage of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor-2. Nat Med. 9:407–415.
Rahman I, Marwick J, and Kirkham P. (2004) Redox modulation of chromatin remodeling: impact on histone acetylation and deacetylation, NF-kappaB and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol.68:1255-1267.
Raung SL, Chen SY, Liao SL, Chen JH, and Chen CJ. (2005) Tyrosine kinase inhibitors attenuate Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neurotoxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 327:399-406.
Raung SL, Chen SY, Liao SL, Chen JH, and Chen CJ. (2007) Japanese encephalitis virus infection stimulates Src tyrosine kinase in neuron/glia. Neurosci Lett.419:263-268.
Rodems SM and Spector DH. (1998) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity is sustained early during human cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol. 72:9173-9180.
Rosen L. (1986) The natural history of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Microbiol.40: 395–414.
Rosenberg GA, Sullivan N, and Esiri MM. (2001) White matter damage is associated with matrix metalloproteinases in vascular dementia. Stroke. 32:1162–1168.
Rosenberg GA. (2002) Matrix metalloproteinases in neuroinflammation.Glia. 39:279-291.
Rouach N, Glowinski J, and Giaume C. (2000) Activity-dependent neuronal control of gap-junctional communication in astrocytes. J Cell Biol. 149:1513-1526.
Santoro, MG, Rossi A, and Amici C. (2003) NF-kappaB and virus infection: who controls whom. EMBO J. 22: 2552–2560.
Schlessinger J. (2000) Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases. Cell .103: 211-225.
Schlessinger J. (2002) Ligand-induced, receptor-mediated dimerization and activation of EGF receptor. Cell. 110: 669-672.
Schwingshackl A, Duszyk M, Brown N, and Moqbel R. (1999) Human eosinophils release matrix metalloproteinase-9 on stimulation with TNF-alpha. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 104:983-989.
Sellner J and Leib SL. (2006) In bacterial meningitis cortical brain damage is associated with changes in parenchymal MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and increased collagen type IV degradation. Neurobiol Dis. 21:647-656.
Shih WL, Kuo ML, Chuang SE, Cheng AL, and Doong SL . (2000) Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits transforming growth factor-beta-induced apoptosis through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 275:25858–25864.
Shipley JM, Doyle GA, Fliszer CJ, Ye QZ, Johnson LL, Shapiro SD, Welgus HG, and Senior RM.(1996) The structural basis for the elastolytic activity of the 92-kDa and 72-kDa gelatinases. Role of the fibronectin type II-like repeats. J Biol Chem. 271:4335-4341.
Singh A, Kulshreshtha R, and Mathur A. (2000) Secretion of the chemokine interleukin-8 during Japanese encephalitis virus infection. J Med Virol. 49:607–612.
Solomon T.(2003) Recent advances in Japanese encephalitis. J Neuro Virol.9:274-283.
Sporer B, Koedel U, Paul R, Kohleisen B, Erfle V, Fontana A, and Pfister HW.(2000) Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Nef protein induces blood-brain barrier disruption in the rat: role of matrix metalloproteinase-9.J Neuroimmunol. 102:125-130.
Steer SA and Corbett JA. (2003) The role and regulation of COX-2 during viral infection. Viral Immunol. 16:447-460.
Suomalainen M, Nakano MY, Boucke K, Keller S, and Greber UF. (2001) Adenovirus-activated PKA and p38/MAPK pathways boost microtubule-mediated nuclear targeting of virus. EMBO J. 20: 1310–1319.
Tai DI. (2000) Constitutive activation of nuclear factorB in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 89: 2274-2281.
Thomas KW, Monick MM, Staber JM, Yarovinsky T, Carter AB, and Hunninghake GW. (2002) Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits apoptosis and induces NF-B activity through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 277:492–501.
Umenai T, Krzysko R, Bektimirov TA, and Assaad FA. (1985) Japanese encephalitis: current worldwide status. Bull World Health Organ. 63: 625–631.
Van Wart HE and Birkedal Hansen H. (1990) The cysteine switch: a principle of regulation of metalloproteinase activity with potential applicability to the entire matrix metalloproteinase gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 87:5578–5582.
Visse R and Nagase H. (2003) Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and biochemistry. Circ Res. 92:827–839.
Vu TH. (2001) Don’t mess with the matrix. Nat Genet.28:202-203.
Wang X, Jung J, Asahi M, Chwang W, Russo L, Moskowitz MA, Dixon CE, Fini ME, and Lo EH. (2000) Effects of matrix metalloproteinase 9 gene knockout on morphological and motor outcomes after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci.20:7037–7043.
Wang X, Mori T, Jung JC, Fini ME, and Lo EH. (2002) Secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 after mechanical trauma injury in rat cortical cultures and involvement of MAP kinase. J Neurotrauma. 19:615-625.
Weil R. (1999) Direct association and nuclear import of the hepatitis B virus X protein with the NF-B inhibitor IB. Mol Cell Biol.19: 6345-6354.
Woo CH, Lim JH, and Kim JH. (2004) Lipopolysaccharide induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-p38 kinase-activator protein-1 pathway in Raw 264.7 cells. J Immunol. 173:6973-6980.
Woo JH, Lim JH, Kim YH, Suh SI, Min DS, Chang JS, Lee YH, Park JW, and Kwon TK. (2004) Resveratrol inhibits phorbol myristate acetate-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by inhibiting JNK and PKC delta signal transduction. Oncogene.23:1845-1853.
Woo MS, Jung SH, Kim SY, Hyun JW, Ko KH, Kim WK, and Kim HS. (2005) Curcumin suppresses phorbol ester-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by inhibiting the PKC to MAPK signaling pathways in human astroglioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 335: 1017-1025.
Wu CY, Hsieh HL, Jou MJ, and Yang CM. (2004) Involvement of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK and nuclear factor-kappa B in interleukin-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes.J Neurochem.90:1477-1488.
Yang CM, Lin MI, Hsieh HL, Sun CC, Ma YH, and Hsiao LD. (2005) Bradykinin- induced p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation and cell proliferation via Src, EGF receptors, and PI3-K/Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol.203: 538-546.
Yang KD, Yen WT, Chen RF, and Chuon HL. (2004) A model to study neurotropism and persistency of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in human neuroblastoma cells and leukocytes. J Gen Virol.85:635–642.
Yong VW, Power C, Forsyth P, and Edwards DR. (2001) Metalloproteinases in biology and pathology of the nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2:502–511.
Zhuo M, Holtzman DM, Li Y, Osaka H, DeMaro J, Jacquin M, and Bu G. (2000) Role of tisue plasminogen activator receptor LRP in hippocampal long term potentiation. J Neurosci. 20:542–549.
Zucker S, Hymowitz M, Conner C, DeClerck Y, and Cao J. (2004) TIMP-2 is released as an intact molecule following binding to MT1-MMP on the cell surface. Exp Cell Res. 293:164-174.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文