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研究生:林恩州
研究生(外文):En-Chou Lin
論文名稱:具表情互動之智慧型照護機器人研究開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of Intelligent Caring Robots with Interactive Facial Expressions
指導教授:郭重顯郭重顯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Hsien Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長庚大學
系所名稱:醫療機電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:智慧型照護機器人互動機器人創意機構設計
外文關鍵詞:intelligent caring robotsinteractive robotinnovative mechanism design.
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本研究為開發一具表情互動之智慧型照護機器人,此機器人整體包括一三輪全方位運動平台、雙電子眼與表情呈現之類人型頭顱。全方位運動平台以任意方位、方向移動。另外,此機器人頭顱能模仿六種人類表情,包括:喜、怒、哀、樂、疑惑、驚訝,共由四種特徵機構所完成。其特徵機構包括:眼睛、眉毛、嘴巴與脖子,共九個自由度,並使用伺服馬達驅動之。其中眉毛為多連桿設計,其上分布多個控制點,分別牽引眉毛達到細膩的曲線變化,頸部亦在多連桿的設計下,可讓頭部做出左右平移甚至聳肩之動作。此外,頭顱上兩個電子眼各具兩個自由度,使之能自由的上下、左右轉動。此機器人頭部表情與頸部之動作完全使用伺服馬達驅動,使之具省電、體積小之優點。另外,機器人頭顱之臉型為自行設計一討喜外型之類人型臉廓,以快速成型機(RP)將之完成。最後,使用一人臉識別軟體辨識需照護之人,並讓機器人依據人臉進行追蹤與表情呈現之動作。


關鍵字:智慧型照護機器人、互動機器人、創意機構設計
This work develops an intelligent caring robot with various facial expressions. This robot is configured with a three-wheeled driving platform, a body and a robot head with two active camera eyes and facial expressions. The three-wheeled driving platform drives the robot moving with any directions and orientations. In addition, the robot head can behave six facial expressions, including smile, anger, sadness, happiness, doubt, and surprise. These facial expressions are mechanically generated by four mechanical modules of active camera eyes, brows, mouse, and neck. These mechanical modules are configured with 9 control degree-of-freedoms and they are controlled by commercial DC servos. Especially, the brows are designed using two typical four-bar-linkages. By introducing various link lengths and control points, different brow motions can be desired using one control degree-of-freedom. In addition, the specially designed neck mechanism use three control degree-of-freedoms to create more special motions such as shrugging robots shoulder. Finally, two control degree-of-freedoms are designed for each camera eye so that it can freely move up and down. In addition, the contour of the robot head is designed as friendly manner. The head is manufactured using the rapid prototyping (RP) machine. On the other hand, a commercial face recognition software is used in this work to recognize caring people. Therefore, the face recognition and facial expression functions make direct interaction with caring people. Finally, all works in this thesis are verified practically, and the results are demonstrated in this thesis.

Keywords: intelligent caring robots; interactive robot; innovative mechanism design.
指導教授推薦書........................................................................................
口試委員會審定書....................................................................................
長庚大學授權書........................................................................................
誌謝............................................................................................................i
中文摘要....................................................................................................ii
英文摘要...................................................................................................iii
第一章 緖論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-2 研究目的 4
1-3 論文架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2-1 照護互動機器人 6
2-2 表情機器人 7
2-3 自主移動機器人 16
第三章 研究方法 19
3-1 使用設備 19
3-2 表情呈現與控制方法 22
3-3 多連桿控制運動學 24
3-4 眉毛控制點設計 27
3-5 全方位三輪控制運動學 29
3-6 照護機器人運作架構 35
3-7 人臉追蹤運作流程 36
第四章 系統開發與實作 37
4-1 照護機器人之頭部機構設計 37
4-1-1 脖子機構設計 38
4-1-2 下顎機構 40
4-1-3 眉毛機構 42
4-1-4 眼睛機構 42
4-1-5 頭部機構固定架 44
4-1-6 臉部外型 46
4-1-7 整體頭顱機構 48
4-2 照護機器人身體機構設計 49
4-3 多軸控制電路板 52
4-4 多軸馬達控制介面 53
4-5 多連桿運動模擬程式開發 54
第五章 研究成果與實測 56
5-1 機構設計與表情測試 56
5-2 人臉追蹤實測成果 61
第六章 結論與未來研究方向 64
6-1 結論 64
6-2 未來研究方向 64
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[2]K. Berns, J. Hirth, “Control of facial expressions of the humanoid robot head ROMAN,” In Proceeding of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3119-3124, 2006.
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[8]M. Hackel, S. Schwope, J. Fritsch, B. Wrede and G. Sagerer, “A Humanoid Robot Platform Suitable for Studying Embodied Interaction,” 2006.
[9]B. Jensen, G. Froidevaux, X. Greppin, A. Lorotte, L. Mayor, M. Meisser, G. Ramell, R. Siegwart, “The interactive autonomous mobile system RoboX,” Proceeding of the IEEE Intl. Conference in Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 1221-1227, 2002.
[10]G. Kim, W. Chung, K.R. Kim, M. Kim, S. Han and Richard H. Shim, “The Autonomous Tour-Guide Robot Jinny,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3450-3455, 2004.
[11]H. Miwa, K. Itoh, M. Matsumoto, M. Zecca, H. Takanobu, S. Roccella, M.C. Carrozza, P. Dario, A. Takanishi, “Effective Emotional Expressions with Emotion Expression Humanoid Robot WE-4RII,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference an Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2203-2208, 2004.
[12]H. Miwa, T. Okuchi, H. Takanobu, A. Takanishi, “Development of a New Human-like Head Robot WE-4,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference an Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2203-2208, 2002.
[13]A. Takanishi, H. Takanobu, I. Kato and T. Umetsu, “Development of the Anthropomorphic Head-Eye Robot WE-3RII with an Autonomous Facial Expression Mechanism,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3255-3260, 1999.
[14]K. Wada, T. Shibata, T. Saito, and K. Tanie, “Effects of Robot-Assisted Activity for Elderly People and Nurses at a Day Service Center,” Proceedings of the IEEE, pp. 1780-1788, 2004.
[15]蔡宗成,具基礎自主行為能力之遠端臨場照護機器人之研發-計畫構想書,元智大學 最佳化實驗室。
[16]謝佩均,『具基礎自主行為能力之遠端臨場機器人之研發』,元智大學,碩士論文,民國93年。
[17]URL:http://www.comicart.com.tw/main/7/72-6.htm
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[19]URL:http://www.few.hk/itcamp2004/ust/SA1_4/link.htm
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