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研究生:陳秋玲
研究生(外文):Chiu-Ling Chen
論文名稱:晶圓廠內等候時間限制下「批量-序列製程」之產能決策模式
論文名稱(外文):Capacity Planning for Batch-serial Processes with Time Constraint in Wafer Fabrication
指導教授:杜瑩美杜瑩美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ying-Mei Tu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中華大學
系所名稱:科技管理學系(所)
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:產能規劃等候時間限制批量-序列製程等候理論到達率平滑化
外文關鍵詞:Capacity planningTime constraintBatch-serial processQueuing theoryArrival smoothing
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晶圓製造技術不斷的演進,在此精密且複雜的製造過程中,為了避免在製品於生產線上等待過久而造成晶圓表面的製程缺陷,所以工程師會根據製程與產品特性制定一段時間來做為等候時間的限制,而此一等候時間就稱之為等候時間限制(Time Constraint)。 等候時間限制對系統的嚴重性會發生在以下三種情況:等候時間限制較短、同一產品重複經過次數較多以及具批量加工生產之特性。一般而言,批量加工站同時具備了上述之特點。到達批量工作站之產品除了需要等候批量工作站加工完畢外,還必須增加集批的額外等候時間;此外,若遇到批量-序列製程(Batch-serial process),產品除了需要等候序列工作站(解批站)加工完畢外,還增加了解批的額外等候時間。受以上因素的影響,也使得產能規劃與決策面臨更大的挑戰。再者,吾人觀察到,同時具有等候時間限制與批量-序列製程的問題,至今仍未被深入探討。除此之外,目前聞名之晶圓代工廠,如TSMC、UMC等,卻仍未將等時間限制的因子考量於產能規劃中而造成現場生產管控的困擾,這也就是本研究的主要動機。 有鑑於此,本研究提出一套有效的解批站產能決策模式,以幫助管理者在面對等候時間限制與批量-序列製程之產能決策問題時,能夠藉由此模式快速地作出最佳決策。而本研究的方法主要是以等候理論之GI/G/m模式為基礎,考量解批的特性,並修正於等候模式之到達率與到達率變異係數平方。此外,因為解批所增加之等候時間,也加以修正於期望等候時間計算模式中。最後,即是以等候線上產品之期望等候時間未超出等候時間限制的機率方程式作為求解方程式。另外,以往為了應付解批產生的負荷問題,通常是增加解批機台數來解決此問題,而在爐管區中的解批機台購置金額高出上游批量機台許多,本研究卻是利用到達率平滑化觀念時,增加上游批量機台數並減少其加工批量大小,提供了管理者一個在投資決策上的新思維,以追求更好的系統績效及更低的設備購置成本。 最後,本文利用eM-Plant物件導向模擬軟體進行研究,並藉由範例來說明與驗證本論文所提出產能決策模式之可行性與準確性,結果證實本文所提出之產能決策模式能有效的估算解批機台之產能設置,也驗證了到達率平滑化對系統的影響。
Over the past decade, wafer fabrication has become more complicated and lengthened the product queue time. To ensure final product yield, engineers need to set up queue time limits, named “time constraint”, for particular machines during wafer processing. Time constraint problems are more serious when the lots released from a batch workstation which often causes the peak workload on the downstream serial workstation. Both time constraint and batch-serial process occur in the furnace area of semiconductor fabrication. There is no doubt that time constraint will influence the manufacturing efficiency and turn into a new challenge to wafer fabrication. Under the time constraint environment, the peak workload will be a critical problem and hurt the performance of downstream workstation seriously. This paper applied GI/G/m queuing theory to develop a capacity determination model for batch-serial process. By this queuing network model, the expected waiting time between batch-serial processes can be estimated. Managers can also determine the capacity through the setting of expected rate of over time constraint. Furthermore, we analyze how the arrival smoothing of the upstream batch workstation will impact on the downstream serial workstation through our capacity determination model, such as waiting time. The result showed that it can effectively decrease the waiting time on the downstream serial workstation through increasing the upstream batch machine numbers and decreasing the batch size. It also implied that increasing the number of downstream serial machines is not the only way under the batch-serial process with time constraint environment. Therefore, the investment function of batch-serial process equipment with time constraint can be established and support managers for investment decision.
摘 要 i Abstract iii 誌 謝 v 符號說明 x 第一章 緒論 1 1.1研究動機與背景 1 1.2研究目的 2 1.3研究範圍與限制 2 1.4研究架構 3 第二章 文獻探討 6 2.1等候時間限制 7 2.2 批量生產特性 9 2.2.1 集批之等候線型態 9 2.2.2 解批之等候線型態 15 2.3 到達率平滑化 16 2.4 結論 17 第三章 產能決策模式之建構 19 3.1 問題範圍與限制 19 3.2 理論應用 20 3.3 產能決策模式 21 3.3.1 研究模型解析 22 3.3.2 產能決策邏輯 24 3.4到達率平滑化對系統的影響 31 3.4.1 到達率平滑化基本觀念 31 3.4.2 探討到達率平滑化對系統的影響 32 3.5 總結 38 第四章 範例與模式驗證 40 4.1 範例環境 40 4.1.1 生產資訊 40 4.2 範例估算 41 4.3 模擬驗證與分析 47 4.3.1模擬環境描述 47 4.3.2模擬時間與次數決定 48 4.3.3模擬結果與分析 49 4.4總結 52 第五章 結論與建議 53 5.1結論 53 5.2未來研究建議 54 參考文獻 55 附錄 58
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