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研究生:顏嘉佑
研究生(外文):Chia-yu Yen
論文名稱:製麴、釀造對虱目魚肉蛋白質水解之作用及其水解物製品品質之評估
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Koji Fermentation and Brewing on the Hydrolysis of Milkfish Meat Protein and the Quality Assessment of the Hydrolysate Product
指導教授:柯文慶柯文慶引用關係徐國強徐國強引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ching KoKuo-Chiang Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:生物產業科技學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:虱目魚魚醬油Aspergillus oryzae製麴
外文關鍵詞:milkfish meatfish sauceAspergillus oryzaekoji making
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本研究以生鮮虱目魚為材料,三片切取其背脊肉之普通肉,以絞肉機絞細(4 mm 孔徑)後,與經焙炒、粉碎約 30 mesh 之小麥粉以魚肉/麥粉比(w/w)1:1(A)、1:0.5(B)及 1:0.1(C)等三種比例混合,接種 0.2% 醬油麴菌 Aspergillus oryzae 之孢子,控制 35-40℃ RH 95% 的環境製麴 36 小時。所得麴在高鹽度(20%)溶液中進行下缸釀造 6 個月,經長時間受外生性細菌、魚體本身及麴菌等所具酵素之作用,使魚肉蛋白質分解成胺基酸,再經調合而成類魚醬油製品。結果顯示○1:製麴後第 36 小時 A 組、B 組及 C 組,蛋白酶活性分別為 76.92、31.82、19.84 Unit;澱粉酶為 79.89、65.50、18.99 Unit 為最高,所以以 36 小時為出麴時間。為此時三組之揮發性鹽基態氮均呈偏高現象(> 50 mg/100 mL);○2 6 個月熟成後,A 組之總氮分為 1.17 g/100 mL、胺基態氮量為 0.68 g/100 mL,均達 CNS 乙級醬油之標準(總氮 1.1 g/100 mL、胺基態氮 0.44 g/100 mL);而 B 組只達丙級品標準(總氮與胺基態氮為 0.98、0.44 g/100 mL);○3發酵6 個月後,A 組、B 組、C 組成品之 pH 分別為 7.62、8.21、8.29,此結果與高魚肉含量所產生的多量鹽基態氮有關。
為改善製麴過程中揮發性鹽基態氮含量偏高之缺失,採用種麴與小麥粉預先混合進行第一階段製麴(提高酵素活性)後,再仿造 A 組添加等量之魚肉進行第二階段製麴(縮短魚肉在製麴時暴露的時間),觀察下缸熟成 3 個月期間所得類魚醬油成分之變化。結果顯示:○1麥粉製麴 12 小時(D組)與 24 小時(E組)後添加魚肉進行第二階段製麴,24 小時出麴時,D 組與 E 組之 VBN 含量分別為 37.73、39.34 mg/100 mL;○2出麴時蛋白酶活性 E 組為 98.77 Unit,D 組為 87.43 Unit;澱粉酶活性則依次為 123.17 與 114.76 Unit,兩酵素活性皆大於 A 組;○3下缸初時,E 組總氮含量為 0.29 g/100 mL,高於 D 組 0.25 g/100 mL。E 組於 2.5 個月後總氮與胺基態氮含量分別為 0.88 與 0.53 g/100 mL,D 組在 3 個月後亦分別達 0.88 與 0.57 g/100 mL,兩者均高於 A 組同時間之產量,也達到 CNS 丙級醬油之標準值;○4感官品質上無論風味與色澤均以 A 組接受度最佳 B、D、E 三組大致相等,C 組因魚肉比率,導致腥味較重、顏色較淡,接受程度較低。
綜合結果可知虱目魚肉可取代黃豆作為蛋白質來源用於製麴以製得類魚醬油製品,唯欲得良好製品,除需考量魚肉之用量與添加於製麴的時機外,熟成時間亦為重要因子。
Milkfish ordinary muscles were used as the raw materials for koji-making. The minced meat from the ordinary muscles was mixed with roasted and crushed wheat (30 mesh) at the meat/wheat ratio (w/w) of 1:1 (group A), 1:0.5 (group B), and 1:0.1 (group C). After inoculating with 0.2% spores of koji mold Aspergillus oryzae, koji was prepared in a koji fermenter by incubating at 35-40℃ and over 95% RH for 36 hours. The koji obtained was then fermented under 20% NaCl for 6 months. Due to the action of exogenous microorganism, endogenous enzymes and koji mold, fish proteins were decomposed to amino acids. The final product was obtained by pressing and blending. The results were shown as follows: ○1Protease activities of the koji obtained via the 36–hour incubation were 76.92, 31.82, and 19.84 units for group A, B, and C, respectively, while amylase activities were 79.89, 65.50, and 18.99 units. The VBN contents of the koji were at high values in all groups. ○2After fermentation for 6 months, total nitrogen were 1.12 g/100 mL for group A, while amino nitrogen were 0.68 g/100 mL, respectively. These contents have reached the level of second grade soy sauce in CNS. But total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents, which were 0.98 and 0.44 g/100 mL for group B after fermentation for 6 months, reached the level of third grade in CNS. ○3The pH values of group B and C after fermentation for 6 months, which were 8.21 and 8.29, were higher than that of group A of 7.62 due to the higher basic nitrogen contents.
According to the high level of VBN during koji-making, the procedures of incubation and fermentation were revised. Wheat mixed with 0.2% Aspergillus oryzae and incubated for 12 (group D) and 24 hours (group E), and then the minced fish meat was added to continuously incubate for 24 hours at the same condition described as above. The koji obtained were then fermented at 20% NaCl for 3 mouths. The changes of components in fish sauce were determined. The results were shown as follows: ○1VBN values of the koji obtained from group D and E were 37.73、39.34 mg/100 mL, respectively, which were significantly lower than that from group A. ○2The protease activity of the koji for group E was 98.77 units that was higher than that for group D (87.43 units), while amylase activities were 123.17 and 114.76 units for group D and E, respectively. The activities of both enzymes of group D and E were higher than group A. ○3Total nitrogen content of group E for 0 mouth was 0.29 g/100 mL, which was better than that of group D for 0.25 g/100 mL. Total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents of group D were 0.88 and 0.57 g/100 mL after fermentation for 3 months, and group E were 0.88 and 0.53 g/100 mL after 2.5-month fermentation. These contents have reached the level of third grade soy sauce in CNS. ○4The sensory evaluation showed that the product of group A was the most acceptable in this study. Unacceptable fish odor and light color occurred in the product of group C, which is unacceptable for consumers
It was confirmed we can replace the milkfish the soya bean, and to utilize the way to make koji. Succeed in making the fish sauce with good quality during half a year (A) to decrease the ferment time of traditional fish sauce (12~18 mouths). If want to take the products well, besides needing to consider the quantity of the fish with add in the opportunity of making koji, getting familiar time is also important factor.
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權書 iii
中文摘要 iv
英文摘要 vi
誌謝 viii
目錄 ix
圖目錄 xiii
表目錄 xvi

1. 緒言 1
1.1 研究目的 1
2. 文獻回顧 3
2.1 台灣虱目魚現況 3
2.2 醬油之簡介 4
2.2.1 醬油歷史 4
2.2.2 醬油的製造方法 5
2.3 醬油產品的種類 7
2.4 醬油產品品質規範 11
2.5 醬油釀造過程中之化學變化 11
2.5.1 種麴與製麴 12
2.5.2 釀造時麴菌的功能 15
2.5.2 醬油熟成之管理 17
2.6 魚醬油之簡介 21
2.6.1 魚醬油 21
2.6.2 魚醬油製作方式 23
3. 材料與方法 26
3.1 實驗材料 26
3.2 實驗儀器 26
3.3 實驗試藥 27
3.4 實驗設計 28
3.4.1 利用傳統製麴法製作魚醬油 28
3.4.2 利用新式製麴法製作魚醬油 28
3.5 分析方法 32
3.5.1 基本成分分析依方法 32
3.5.1.1 粗蛋白質 32
3.5.1.2 粗脂肪 32
3.5.1.2 粗脂肪 32
3.5.1.3 水分 33
3.5.1.4 灰分 33
3.5.1.5 碳水化合物 33
3.5.2 魚肉麴之測定 34
3.5.2.1 魚肉麴酵素活性之測定 34
3.5.2.2 魚肉麴 pH 之測定 36
3.5.2.2 魚肉麴揮發性鹽基態氮之測定 36
3.5.3 魚醬油製品之測定 37
3.5.3.1 總氮之測定 37
3.5.3.2 甲醛態氮之測定 38
3.5.3.3 氨態氮之測定 38
3.5.3.4 胺基態氮之測定 39
3.5.3.5 酸度之測定 39
3.5.3.6 鹽濃度之測定 39
3.5.3.7 還原醣之測定 40
3.5.3.8 製品官能品評試驗 40
3.6. 市售魚醬油之檢測 40
3.6.1 Hunter L, a, b 值之測定 41
3.6.2 褐變程度 41
3.6.3 數據統計分析 41
4. 結果與討論 43
4.1 原料之基本成分分析 43
4.2 利用傳統製麴法製作魚醬油 43
4.2.1 製麴期間魚肉麴之變化 43
4.2.1.1 麴之外觀與菌絲之伸展 43
4.2.1.2 麴之pH 值 44
4.2.1.3 揮發性鹽基態氮 44
4.2.1.4 製麴期間酵素活性之變化 49
4.2.2 魚醬油釀造時間之成份變化 49
4.2.2.1 製品 pH 值與酸度之變化 49
4.2.2.2 總氮之變化 50
4.2.2.3 甲醛態氮、氨態氮、胺基態氮之變化 56
4.2.2.4 還原醣之變化 60
4.2.2.5 鹽濃度之變化 61
4.2.2.6 魚醬油汁製品之外觀 61
4.3 利用新式製麴法製作魚醬油 65
4.3.1 製麴期間魚肉麴之變化 65
4.3.1.1 麴之外觀與菌絲之伸展 65
4.3.1.2 揮發性鹽基態氮 65
4.3.1.3 製麴期間酵素活性之變化 68
4.3.2 利用新式製麴法魚醬油釀造時間之成份變化 71
4.3.2.1 製品 pH 值與酸度之變化 71
4.3.2.2 總氮之變化 71
4.3.2.3 甲醛態氮、氨態氮、胺基態氮之變化 75
4.3.2.4 還原醣之變化 76
4.3 本次實驗產品之感官品評 80
4.4 市售魚醬油與本次實驗成品之比較 84
4.4.1 外觀及內容物顏色比較 84
4.4.2 成分分析 84
4.4.2.1 酸度與 pH 值之變化 84
4.4.2.2 總氮、甲醛態氮、氨態氮、胺基態氮之變化 87
4.4.1.2 還原醣與鹽度 87
4.4.1.3 褐變及色澤(L,a,b) 88
5.結論 92
參考文獻 94
附錄 102
圖目錄
Fig. 1 Traditional fermentation process of soy sauce 25
Fig. 2 Experimental process for fermentation of fish sauce 30
Fig. 3 Experimental process for fermentation of innovative fish sauce 31
Fig. 4 The calibration curve of standard protease and amylase 42
Fig. 5 Appearance of milkfish meat-roasted wheat koji during koji-making 46
Fig. 6 Changes in pH of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during Koji-making 47
Fig. 7 Changes in VBN of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during koji-making 48
Fig. 8 Changes in protease activity of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during Koji-making 51
Fig. 9 Changes in amylase activity of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during Koji-making 52
Fig.10 Changes in pH of fish sauce during fermentation 53
Fig.11 Changes in acidity of fish sauce during fermentation 54
Fig.12 Changes in total nitrogen of fish sauce during fermentation 56
Fig.13 Changes in Formol-nitrogen of fish sauce during fermentation 57
Fig.14 Changes in Ammonia-nitrogen of fish sauce during fermentation 58
Fig.15 Changes in Amino-nitrogen of fish sauce during fermentation 59
Fig.16 Changes in reducing sugar of fish sauce during fermentation 62
Fig.17 Changes in NaCl content of fish sauce during fermentation 63
Fig.18 Appearance of milkfish sauce product after fermentation for 6 months 64
Fig.19 Appearance of milkfish meat-roasted wheat during innovative koji-making 66
Fig.20 Changes in VBN of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during innovative Koji making 67
Fig.21 Changes in protease activity of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during innovative Koji fermentation 69
Fig.22 Changes in amylase activity of milkfish meat-roasted wheat Koji during innovative Koji fermentation 70
Fig.23 Changes in pH of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 72
Fig.24 Changes in acidity of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 73
Fig.25 Changes in total nitrogen of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 74
Fig.26 Changes in Formol-nitrogen of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 77
Fig.27 Changes in Ammonia-nitrogen of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 78
Fig.28 Changes in Amino-nitrogen of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 79
Fig.29 Changes in reducing sugar of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 81
Fig.30 Changes in NaCl content of innovative fish sauce during fermentation 82
Fig.31 Compared with appearance of the commercial fish sauce 85
Fig.32 Compaed with color of commercial and experimental fish sauce 86
表目錄
Table 1 The quality standard of all kind of bean sauce(A 13
Table 2 The quality standard of all kind of bean sauce(B)14
Table 3 Proximate compositions of milkfish and roasted wheat powder 44
Table 4 Sensory evaluation for experiment products 82
Table 5 Proximate compositions of commercial fish sauce and experimental products (A) 90
Table 6 Proximate compositions of commercial fish sauce and experimental products (B) 91
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