(18.206.177.17) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/11 02:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊奕源
研究生(外文):Yang Yih Yuan
論文名稱:求職難度與賽局理論之應用-求職者限制因素觀點
論文名稱(外文):An Application of Game Theoretical to the Difficulty of Job Seeking-The Constraint Factors of Job Seekers
指導教授:姚惠忠姚惠忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao Hui-Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:管理研究所博士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞: 人力資本 人力負債 求職者限制因素 求職難度 賽局理論
外文關鍵詞:human capital human liability Job Seeker''s traints difficulty of job seeking game theory
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:345
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究從職位取得的消極因素出發,運用賽局分析結果得到7個完美貝氏均衡(PBE),歸納六點結論為:1.求職者是否降低限制因素,取決於雇主對求職者類型之信念與降低限制因素之成本。2.雇主的信念,取決於薪資水準的高低。3.求職者能夠接受降低限制因素之成本,受雇主對求職者類型信念之影響。4. 當雇主發現當求職者不降限制因素,且對求職者類型之信念偏向L type時,雇主可能得到負報償。5. 當雇主對於不降限制因素的求職者之類型信念偏向M type,且降低限制因素成本過高時,將導致勞資雙輸的不利結果。6. 當雇主對降低限制因素的求職者偏向M type信念時,雇主可能得負的報償。
本研究從人力負債概念出發,探討求職者限制因素對求職難度的影響。研究發現限制因素可分為三個潛在構面,分別為求職者心理因素、求職技能與外部限制,求職難度與3個構面、14項限制因素皆成顯著正相關,限制因素越多,求職者求職難度越高。
外部限制構面,屬於長期人力負債性質,需要透過政府或社會的力量來協助。另外兩個構面,屬於流動人力負債,只要求職者調整認知與觀念或受簡易訓練,就能有效產生降低限制因素的效果。另外要降低求職難度,應以降低流動人力負債屬性的限制因素為主要目標。限制因素則以「自信心不足」列為優先處理項目,而要提振求職者自信心作法包括:有效的解除求職者自我設限、調整其職場價值觀、提振其求職積極度、協助確定職場興趣、解決其學與用失調等措施,應可產生效果。
This study is based on passive factors of acquiring job positions. It uses game theory analysis to obtain 7 Perfect Bayesian Equilibriums (PBEs) and draw 6 conclusions: (1) whether job seekers reduce the constraint factors depends on the employers’ faith in the individual types of job seekers and the cost, to the job seeker, of reducing constraint factors; (2) the employers’ faith depends on the level of the salary; (3) that job seekers accept reducing constraint factors based on employers’ faith in their types; (4) when employers find out that job seekers are not willing to reduce the constraint factors, and their faith leans to L type workers, employers will experience negative productivity; (5) when employers find out that job seekers are not willing to reduce their constraint factors, employers’ faith leans to M type workers, and the cost of reducing constraint factors is high, unfavorable effects between labor and capital will result; and (6) when job seekers are willing to reduce constraint factors and employers’ faith leans toward M type employees, employers might experience negative productivity.
This study probes the influences of constraint factors on the difficulty of job seeking, based on the concept of human liability. Additionally, it finds 14 constraint factors have 3 potential classifications, including psychological factors of job seekers, job seeking skills, and external constraints. The difficulty of job seeking has significant correlations with all 3 classifications of the 14 constraint factors. When job seekers have more constraint factors, their difficulty of job seeking will be higher.
The constraint factors of job seekers belonging to the external constraint classification are long-term human liabilities. Reducing the negative impact of these constraint factors will take longer and be very costly. As a result, reducing the impact of these factors requires assistance from the government and society. Thus, a better effect for the job seekers will be generated.
The other 2 classifications of constraint factors belong have characteristics of current human liabilities. As long as job seekers have adjustable cognition and perception toward position requirements or take part in relative, simple, and easy training. Consequently, reducing the negative impact of these constraint factors can be done effectively. In addition, this research also found that in order to reduce the difficulty of job seeking, the main goal is to reduce the negative impact of constraint factors classified as current human liabilities. Among the 14 constraint factors, the factor found to have the highest correlation with difficulty of job seeking was “low self-confidence.” The ways to improve the job seekers’ self-confidence include effectively reducing self-handicapping, adjusting workplace values, enhancing job-seeking enthusiasm, increasing work interest and adjusting imbalances academic knowledge and work experience. Thus, a better effect for seeking jobs should be generated.
內 容 目 錄
中文摘要 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ iii
英文摘要 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ v
致謝辭 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ vii
內容目錄 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ viii
表目錄 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ x
圖目錄 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ xi
第一章 緒論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第一節 研究背景與動機‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 1
第二節 研究問題與目的‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 3
第三節 名詞解釋‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 5
第二章 文獻探討‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 8
第一節 人力資本與人力負債‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 8
第二節 賽局理論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 15
第三節 求職者的限制因素‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 25
第三章 研究方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 38
第一節 研究步驟‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 38
第二節 賽局設定‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 40
第三節 研究設計‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 46
第四章 研究結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 54
第一節 求解「精煉貝斯均衡」‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 54
第二節 求職者限制因素‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 66
第三節 求職限制因素之量化分析‧‧‧‧‧‧ 83
第五章 結論與建議‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 90
第一節 賽局均衡分析‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 90
第二節 求職者限制因素‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 94
第三節 研究建議與限制‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 96
文獻參考 ‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 101
中文部分‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 101
英文部分‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 104
附錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 116













表 目 錄
表 2-1 非合作賽局的分類‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 19
表 3-1 求職者類型、行動與報償代號表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 42
表 3-2 求職者限制因素之項目分析(獨立樣本T檢定)‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 53
表 4-1 健康限制訪談摘要表 68
表 4-2 年齡限制訪談摘要表 69
表 4-3 自信心不足訪談摘要表 70
表 4-4 家庭因素訪談摘要表 71
表 4-5 背負經濟壓力訪談摘要表 72
表 4-6 人際能力不足訪談摘要表 73
表 4-7 興趣探索未定訪談摘要表 74
表 4-8 求職技巧不足訪談摘要表 75
表 4-9 目標抉擇的兩難訪談摘要表 76
表 4-10 職場資訊不足訪談摘要表 77
表 4-11 學與用失調訪談摘要表 78
表 4-12 求職積極度低訪談摘要表 79
表 4-13 職業價值觀失調訪談摘要表 80
表 4-14 自我設限訪談摘要表 81
表 4-15 求職人員限制因素影響程度百分比‧‧‧‧ 82
表 4-16 求職者限制因素主成份因素分析表‧‧‧ 84
表 4-17 求職者限制因素Pearson 相關分析表‧‧ 86
表 4-18 求職難度與求職者限制因素構面相關性分析表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧
87
表 4-19 構面預測求職者求職難度之逐步迴歸分析摘要表‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧
88
表 4-20 求職難度之逐步迴歸分析摘要表‧‧‧‧‧ 89
圖 目 錄
圖 3-1 研究步驟流程圖‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 39
圖 3-2 雇主與求職者賽局‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧ 45
一、中文部份

Tracy, B.(2003),十年後我是誰?設定人生成功目標的21項原則(莊靖 譯),大師輕鬆讀,(56),(p11),台北市:台灣大師文化事業股份有限公司。

江建良(2001),統計學,台北縣:龍騰出版社。

朱湘吉(2000),願景生涯,台北市:風和書局。

行政院主計處。失業率[線上資料],來源:http://www.dgbasey.gov.tw/[2006, May 22]。

行政院勞工委員會職業訓練局,就業服務[線上資料],來源:http://www.evta.gov.tw/[2006, May 22]。

何金銘,陳淑玲,童冠燁(2006),從人力資本與勞動市場區隔觀點探討非自願離職者再就業的決定因素:洛基對數線性分析,管理學報,23(1),61-75。

巫和懋,夏珍(2002),賽局高手,台北市:時報出版社。

沈介文,陳銘嘉,徐明儀(2004),當代人力資源管理,台北:三民書局。

林新沛(2005),標準化迴歸係數的正確解釋,中山管理評論, 13(2), 533-548。

吳明隆(2003),SPSS統計應用學習實務,台北市:知城數位科技。

吳萬益,林清河(2002),行銷研究,台北市:華泰文化出版社。

邱皓政(2002),量化研究與統計分析,台北市:五南書局。

吳美連(2005),人力資源管理理論與實務,台北市:智勝文化。

吳宜蓁(1994),從博奕理論解析環保自立救濟事件,載於郭良文(主編),台灣的環保公關,台北市:巨流出版社,45-60。

姚惠忠(1998a),政黨提名策略與派系輪政之競局理論分析,人文及社會科學集刊,10(3),451- 475。

姚惠忠(1998b),不充分訊息之三人競局理論分析-以國民黨與地方派系之互動為例,國立政治大學經濟系未出版博士論文。

洪茂蔚,蘇永成,陳明賢,胡星陽(1999),財務管理,台北市:雙葉書廊有限公司。

張維迎(1999),賽局理論與訊息經濟學,台北市:茂昌出版社。

黃英忠,張國義,杜佩蘭(2002),報紙廣告招募內容及訴求— 招募者與求職者觀點,人力資源管理學報,2(2):99-112。

曾渙釗(2003),TOC專有名詞,新竹市:安瑟管理顧問有限公司。

楊奕源,姚惠忠(2005),求職者於求職期間限制因素之探討,人力資源管理學報,5(2),121-142。

楊孝爃(1999),內容分析,載於楊國樞(主編),社會及行為科學研究法(下,十三版),(pp.809-831),台北市:東華書局。

歐用生(1989),教育研究的新方向-質的研究,國民教育月刊,29。

鄭丁旺,汪映若,黃金發(1997),初級會計學,台北市:自版。





二、英文部份

Adnett, P. (1996). European labor markets Analysis and policy. London Longman.

Allan, P.(1990). Looking for work after forty:Job search experi¬ences of older unemployed managers and professionals. Journal of Employment Counseling, 27, 113-121.

Anderson, N., & Shackleton, V. (1990). Decision making in the graduate selection interview: A field study. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 63-76.

Anderson, N. R. (1992). Eight decades of employment interview research: A retrospective meta-review and prospective commentary. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 2, 1-32.

Argyres, N. S., & Liebeskind, J. P. (1999). Contractual commitments, bargaining power, and governance inseparability: incorporating history into transaction cost theory. Academy of Management Review, 1, 49-63.

Barber, A. E. (1998). Recruiting Employees: Individual and Organizational Perspectives. Foundation for organizational science. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Barclay, J. M.(1999). Employee selection: A question of structure. Personnel Review, 28, 134-151.

Barney, J.(1991). Firm resource and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 3, 99-120.

Battista, M., & Thompson, D. E. (1996). Motivation for Reemployment: The Role of Self-efficacy and Identity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego. CA.

Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital. New Yorks:National Bureau of Economic Research.

Becker, G. S. (1975). Human capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis. With Special Reference to Education (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Bierman, H. S., & Fernandez, L. (1998). Game Theory : With Economic Applications (2nd ed.). Massachusetts:Addison-Wesley.

Brummet, R. L. (1970). Accounting for human resources. New York Certificated Public Accountant, 7, 547-555.

Caplan, R. D., Vinokur, A. D., Price, R. H., & Van Ryn, M.(1989). Job-seeking, reemployment. and mental health: A randomized field experiment in coping with job loss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 759-769.

Cetron, M. & Gayle, M.(1991). Educational Renaissance. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Daniel, R. & Madeline Z.(2000). Are displaced workers now finished at age forty? Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Economics Review, 2, 33-47.

DeFrank, R. S. & Ivancevich, J. M.(1986). Job loss: An 72 Journal of Management February individual level review and model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 1-20.

Elster, Jon.(1986). Introduction: in Rational Choice. New York: New York University Press.

Fallick, B. C.(1996). A review of the recent empirical literature on displaced workers. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 50, 5-16.

Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents, and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22, 385-409.

Feldman, D. C. (2003). The antecedents and consequences of early career indecision among young adults. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 499-531.

Ferris, G. R.(1997). Competing pressures for human resource investment, Human Resource Management Review, 7(3), 317-340 .

Finch, J. H. (1998). The re-employment experiences of former aerospace employees within a local economy, Regional Studies, 32(5), 421-433.

Fireman, J.(1993). Beating the middle career crisis. Fortune, September, 52-62.

Flamholtz, E. G. (1971). Should your organization attempt to value its human resources? California Management Review, 1, 40-45.

Flamholtz, E. G. (1972). On the use of economic concept of human capital in financial statements: A comment. Accounting Review, 1, 148-152.

Flamholtz, E. G.(1975). The metaphysics of human resource accounting and its implications for managerial accounting. Accounting Forum, 12, 51-61.

Flanagan, J. C., (1954). The critical incident technique, Psychological Bulletin, 51(l), 327-358.

Gatewood, R. D., Growan, M. A., & Lautenschlager, G. J.(1993). Corporate image, recruitment image, and initial job choice decision. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 414 - 427 .

Gifford, R., Ng, C. F., & Wilkinson, M. (1985). Nonverbal cues in employment interview: Links between applicant qualities and interviewer judgments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 729-736.

Grasenick, K. & Low, J.(2004). Haken, not stirred: Defiling and connecting indicators for the measurement and valuation of intangibles? Journal of intellectual Capital, 5(2), 268-281.

Harmermesh, D. S. (1989). Labor demand and the structure of adjustment costs. American Economic Review, 79(4), September, 674-689.

Harris, M. (2000). Human Resource Management: A Practical Approach (2nd ed.). New York: Dryden Press.

Harsanyi, J. (1973). Games with randomly distributed payoffs: A new rationale for mixed strategy equilibrium point. International Journal of Game Theory, 2, 1-23.

Helwig, R. T.(2001). Worker displacement in a strong labor market, Monthly Labor Review, 6, 13-28.

Hermanson, D. R., Ivancevich, M., Hermanson, R. H.(1992). Human resource accounting in recessionary times. Management Accounting, 74(1), 69.

Higgins, C. A., & Judge, T. A. (2004). The effect of applicant influence tactics on recruiter perceptions of fit and hiring recommendations: A field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 622-632.

Katz, M., & Harvey, R. (1998). Microeconomic Theory. McGraw-Hill International Edition.

Kersten, E. L.(2006). Why they call it work. Harvard Business Review, 53(1), 54-55.

Kletzer, L. G. (1998). Job displacement. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12, 115-136.

Leana, C. R., & Feldman, D. C. (1992). Coping With Job Loss. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Leana, C. R., & Feldman, D. C. (1995). Finding new jobs after a plant closing. Antecedents and outcomes of the occurrence and quality of reemployment. Human Relations, 48, 1381-1401.

Li, C. (1999). Involuntary unemployment and Taiwan’s develop. Central University Societal Journal, 8, 95-118. in Chinese.

Losey, M. R. (1999). Mastering the competencies of HR management. Human Resource Management, 38(2), 99-102.

Luenberger, D. G. (1995). Microeconomic Theory. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

McLagan, P. A. (1980). Competency models. Training & Development Journal, 34(12), 22-26.

Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, Experience and Earnings, New York: Columbia University Press.

Murphy, P.(1985). Using games as models for crisis communications. Public Relations Review, 13(4), 19-28.

Murphy, P. (1991). The limits of symmetry: A game theory approach to symmetric and asymmetric public relations. Public Relations Research Annual, 3, 115-131.

Nash, J. (1950). Equilibrium points in n-person games. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 36, 48-49.

Olson, M. J.(1965). The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Osborne, M. J. & Ariel, R. (1994). A course in Game Theory. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Pincus, J. D., Acharya, L., Trotter, E. P., & Michel, C. S.(1991). Conflict between public relations agencies and their clients: A game theory analysis. Public Relations Research Annual, 3, 151-163.

Price, R. H. (1992). Psychological impact of job loss on individuals and families. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 9-11.

Rasmusen, E. (1994). Games and Information. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Riker, W. (1990). Political science and rational choice. In perspectives on positive political economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Riordan, M. H., & Williamson, O. E.(1985). Asset specificity and economic organization. International Journal of Industrial Organization, Amsterdam, 12, 365-378.

Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2002). Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River:Prentice Hall, Inc.

Schmitt, N. (1976). Social and situational determinants of interview decisions: Implications for the employment interview. Personnel Psychology, 29, 79-101.

Schultz, T. W.(1975). Career Dynamics: Matching Individual and Organization Needs, New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Selten, R. (1965). Spieltheoretische behandlung eines oligopolmodells mit Nachfagetragheit. Zeitschrift Fur die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 12, 301-324.

Selten, R.(1975). Re-examination of the perfectness concept for equilibrium point in extensive games. International Journal of Game, 4, 25-55.

Silvestri, G. T.(1995). Occupational employment to 2005. Monthly Labor Review, 118, 60-87.

Spence, A. M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87, 355-374.

Stevens, C. K., & Kristof, A. L. (1995). Making the right impression: A field study of applicant impression management during job interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 587–606.

Strauss, A., & Corbin J.(1990). Basics of Qualitative Research:Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newsbury Park, CA:sage.

Super, D., & Bohn, M. (1970). Occupational Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Watson, J. (2002). Strategy: An Introduction to Game Theory. New York: Norton.

Wanberg, C. R., Watt, J. D., & Rumsey, D. J. (1996). Individ¬uals without jobs: An empirical study of job-seeking behavior and reemployment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 76-87.

Wanberg, C. R.(1997). Antecedents and outcomes of coping behaviors among unemployed and reemployed individuals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 731-744.

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R. & Rotundo, M. (1999). Unemployed individuals: Motives, job-Search competencies, and job-Search constraints as predictors of job seeking and reemployment. Journal of Applied psychology, 84(6), 897-910.

Woodhall, H. (1987). Human capital concepts. In George Psacharopoulos Economics of Education: Research and Studies, Oxford:Pergamon Press.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔