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研究生:張良光
研究生(外文):LIANG-KUANG CHANG
論文名稱:轎車駕駛者對車側近車身物體與車身距離之判斷研究
論文名稱(外文):Distance Perception of Car Drivers about Near-Field Object with Different Rear Vision Systems
指導教授:楊旻洲楊旻洲引用關係
指導教授(外文):MIN-CHOU YANG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:設計研究所
學門:設計學門
學類:視覺傳達設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:轎車後照鏡車側視野距離認知微型攝影機
外文關鍵詞:Passenger carRear view mirrorRear visionDistance perceptionCamera
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台灣地區機車密度甚高,交通環境充斥四處穿梭之機車,駕駛者是否能準確判斷車側後方機車之距離,甚為重要。然而駕駛者位於封閉的車內空間中,僅依靠現有車外後照鏡,無法掌握車側後方機車之正確距離,易因誤判距離而產生意外事故。

目前各家車廠均提出使用微型攝影機代替車外後照鏡之概念,但於實際使用上尚缺定論。有鑑於此,本研究以模擬於實際道路上之實驗方式,先使用安裝1400mm 球面鏡之車外後照鏡,探討於近距離狀況下,駕駛者對車側後方機車之距離判斷,再透過加裝標準鏡頭與廣角鏡頭之微型攝影機,探討駕駛者於不同之後視系統輔助下,車側後方之實際視野範圍、轉彎危險程度判定以及車側後方機車與車身之縱向距離判斷之差異。

實驗結果顯示,不同後視系統會影響受測者對車側後方機車之判斷,於轉彎危險程度判定上,當後方機車位於同一位置時,使用廣角鏡頭感覺安全於標準鏡頭,使用標準鏡頭則感覺安全於外後照鏡。此外使用車外後照鏡,判斷距離低於實際距離,使用標準鏡頭則較接近實際距離,使用廣角鏡頭則高於實際距離。
Traffic environment of Taiwan is packed with the motorcycle shuttling back andforth everywhere. At this situation, drivers’ distance perception between the car and the outside motorcycle is very important. However, because of the hindering of car body structure, most drivers may not be able to have a correct distance perception and make the accident happened more easily.

Currently nearly all car manufacturers are using camera-based rear vision system helping drivers have a correct distance perception to replace side rearview mirror. But how to operate the camera-based rear vision system effectively is an issue worth systematic studying. A spherical convex side mirror(radius 1400mm) and two different camera-based rear vision systems (wide-angle lens and normal lens)were evaluated as passenger-side rearview mirror in a field test to find drivers’ actual view field 、lane change judgment and distance perception about near-field object. Subjects’ distance perceptions for object seen in rear vision systems were measured by magnitude estimation in a static field setting.

The results show that different rear vision systems do influence the perception of the distance. Driver judge the distance using convex mirror cause underestimation, wide-angle lens cause overestimation when motorcycle lies in the same position. It is
relatively close to the real distance to use the standard lens.
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權書....................................................iii
中文摘要..................................................iv
英文摘要..................................................v
誌謝......................................................vi
目錄......................................................vii
圖目錄....................................................ix
表目錄....................................................xii

第一章 緒論
1.1 研究背景以及動機........................................01
1.2 研究目標...............................................02
1.3 研究範圍及限制..........................................03
1.4 研究流程及架構..........................................06
第二章 文獻探討
2.1 相關技術法規............................................08
2.2 駕駛者後方視野範圍.......................................10
2.3 車側後視裝置目前技術之研究................................12
2.4 人機介面探討............................................15
2.5 車側後方視野認知之研究...................................20
第三章 研究方法
3.1 受測者與實驗工具.........................................25
3.2 實驗設計及流程...........................................27
3.3 實驗步驟................................................30
3.4 資料分析與統計...........................................32
第四章 實驗結果分析
4.1 使用外後照鏡時,車側近車身機車與車身之距離判斷...............33
4.2 不同後視輔助模式下,車側實際視野範圍判斷....................43
4.3 不同後視輔助模式下,車側後方有機車之轉彎危險程度判斷..........47
4.4 不同後視輔助模式下,車側近車身機車與車身之縱向距離判斷........52
4.5 不同後視輔助模式比較......................................57
4.6 不同性別受測者對車側近車身機車與車身之縱向距離判斷比較........58
4.7 觀測機車不同擺放模式之距離判斷比較..........................61
第五章 結論
5.1 結論....................................................62
5.2 建議....................................................62
參考文獻.....................................................64
一、中文部分
【1】 中國國家標準CNS,汽車用照後鏡,總號6172,類號D2050。
【2】 林大煜、賴靜慧,2000,民國八十九年及歷年道路交通事故之趨勢與特性分析, 交通部運輸研究所。
【3】 施善贏,2005,車用導航系統對於駕駛績效之影響研究,大同大學工業設計研 究所。
【4】 郭耀聰,2003,側撞警示系統之設計與研發,國立台北科技大學車輛工程研究所。
【5】 黃俊勛,2001,車用影像感測器市場,工研院。
【6】 楊建人,2003,光學原理,徐氏文教基金會出版。

二、英文部分
【7】 Alexander P. de Vos , 2000, Non-planar driver's side rearview
mirrors: A Survey of Mirror types and European Driver Experience and a Driver Behavior Study on the Influence of Experience and Driver Age on Gap Acceptance and Vehicle Detection. NHTSA Contract Monitor: Michael Perel, Office of Vehicle Safety Research, DOT HS 809 149.
【8】 Alexander P. de Vos, Richard van der Horst and Michael Perel, 1999,Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors: A Survey of Mirror Types and European Driver Experience. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 1999-01-0658.
【9】 Flannagan Carol A. C. and Michael J. Flannagan , 1998, Acceptance of Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors by U.S. Drivers. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 980919, Reprinted From: Human Factors in Driving, Vehicle Seating, and Rear Vision(SP-1358).
【10】 Flannagan, M.J. and Mary Lynn Mefford, 2005, Distance Perception with a Camera-based Rear Vision System in Actual Driving. Proceedings of the Third International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design.
【11】 Flannagan, M.J., 2000, Current Status and Future Prospects for Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 2000-01-0324,
Reprinted From: Human Factors in 2000: Driving, Lighting, Seating
Comfort, and Harmony in Vehicle Systems (SP–1539).
【12】 Flannagan, M.J., Michael Sivak and Eric C. Traube , 1999, Quantifying the Direct Field of View when Using Driver-Side Rearview Mirrors. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 1999-01-0656.
【13】 Flannagan, M.J., Michael Sivak and Mary Lynn Mefford , 2002, Distance Perception in Camera-Based Rear Vision Systems. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 2002-01-0012, Reprinted From: Advanced Lighting Technology for Vehicles(SP–1668).
【14】 Flannagan, M.J., Michael Sivak, and Eric C. Traube, 1996, Driver Perceptual Adaptation to Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 960791, Reprinted from: Automotive Design
Advancements in Human Factors: Improving Drivers’s Comfort and
Performance.
【15】 Flannagan, M.J., Michael Sivak, and Julie K. Simpson, 2001, The Relative Importance of Pictorial and Nonpictorial Distance Cues for Driver Vision. Proceeding of 2001 International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design. Snowmass Village at Aspen, Colorado.
【16】 Flannagan, M.J., Michael Sivak, Shinichi Kojima and Eric C. Traube, 1998, A Field Study of Distance Perception with Large-Radius Convex Rearview Mirrors. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 980916, Reprinted From: Human Factors in Driving, Vehicle Seating, and Rear Vision.
【17】 Li S. and S. FukSang, 1998, An Advanced Optic Rear Vision Device for Motor Vehicles. SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES 980921, Reprinted From: Human Factors in Driving, Vehicle Seating, and Rear Vision(SP-1358).
【18】 Luoma, J., M. Sivak, and M.J. Flannagan, 1994, Effects of driver-side mirror type on lane-change accidents. UMTRI-94-34 302753.
【19】 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2003, 2002 Motor Vehicle Crash Data from FARS and GES.
【20】 Reed, M.P., Lehto, M.M., and M.J. Flannagan, 2000, Field of View in Passenger Car Mirrors. Report No. UMTRI-2000-23.
【21】 SAE J985 Reaffirmed DEC2002 , 2002, Vision Factors Considerations in Rearview Mirror Design.
【22】 Scott Pyles W., 2004, Lane Change Accidents are Caused by Blind Spots and Factors Affecting The Driver’s Awareness of Vehicles in Adjacent Lanes of Traffic. Valeo Raytheon White Paper Series Version 1.3.
【23】 Tijerina, Garrott, 2000, Preliminary Effectiveness Estimates for Lane Change Avoidance System.
【24】 William J. Horrey, Amy L. Alexander and Christopher D. Wickens, 2003, Does Workload Modulate the Effects of In-Vehicle Display Location on Concurrent Driving and Side Task Performance?. DSC North America 2003 Proceedings, Dearborn, Michigan, October 8-10, 2003 (ISSN 1546-5071).

三、日文部分
【25】 松田隆夫、竹澤智美,2002,画像上の人物に対する絶対距離と相対距離の知覚,立命館人間科学研究 第4号。
【26】 大中悠起子、竹澤智美、松田隆夫,2003,写真の長短比と大きさが写真の印象評定に与える影響,立命館人間科学研究第5号2003.3。

四、網路部分
【27】 Drivaware Cpmpany Available at: http://www.lanefx.com/
【28】 Ford 褔特六和汽車公司 Available at:http://www.ford.com.tw
【29】 丁海, 2004 , 後視鏡設計。Available at:http://www.cqvip.com/
【30】 內政部營建署,市區道路工程規劃及設計規範之研究。Available at:http://www.cpami.gov.tw/
【31】 包愛忠, 1999 , 轎車後視鏡功能設計。Available at:http://www.cqvip.com/
【32】 吳明, 2004 , 汽車後視鏡調整的學問。Available at:http://www.cqvip.com/
【33】 李東宏,2005,「視覺敏銳」的圖像傳感器提高汽車的安全性。Available at: http://www.cqvip.com/
【34】 熊玉潔, 2004 , 後視鏡佈置與設計。Available at:http://www.cqvip.com/
【35】 龐興華、孫建穎,2004,計算機輔助汽車後視野檢驗的研究及實現。Available at: http://www.cqvip.com/
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