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研究生:童瑞源
研究生(外文):Tung. Jui-yuan
論文名稱:蒟蒻、卡德藍膠和鹿角菜膠應用於貢丸加工上模式系統之評估
論文名稱(外文):A Model System for Application of Konjac ,Curdlan and Carrageenan in Meat Ball Processing
指導教授:陳明造陳明造引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:生物產業科技學系碩士在職專班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:鹿角菜膠蒟蒻膠卡德藍膠鹿角菜膠蒟蒻蒟蒻卡德藍膠鹿角菜膠卡德藍膠
外文關鍵詞:WHC(water holding capacity)TPA(texture profile analyses)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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研究乃探討以食用膠(多醣類)添加於貢丸中之可行性。實驗分別探討對照組(基礎原料配方)和添加不同食用膠(配方膠群:鹿角菜膠、蒟蒻膠、卡德藍膠、鹿角菜膠加蒟蒻膠、蒟蒻膠加卡德藍膠、鹿角菜膠加卡德藍膠)( 0% , 5% , 10%)對產品的硬度、凝膠性強度、彈力,以及官能品質之影響。實驗結果顯示:添加不同膠類時,卡德蘭膠,鹿角菜膠,蒟蒻膠,(鹿角菜膠加蒟蒻膠),(蒟蒻膠加卡德藍膠),(鹿角菜膠加卡德藍膠)的添加,均能增進產品的多汁性,這可能與膠類的保水能力有關。
而含不同食用膠之貢丸失重率及色澤均與對照組無顯著差異。質地分析及剪切值測試結果顯示,含有第一配方群(添加5%單一膠體)與第二配方群(添加10%單一膠體)之貢丸其硬度、凝膠、咀嚼性、彈力值均明顯低於對照組,而含有第三配方群(5%鹿角菜膠加蒟蒻膠、5%蒟蒻膠加卡德藍膠及5%鹿角菜膠加卡德藍膠)及第四配方群(10%鹿角菜膠加蒟蒻膠、10%蒟蒻膠加卡德藍膠及10%鹿角菜膠加卡德藍膠) 之貢丸其硬度、凝膠性、咀嚼性、彈力值則高於對照組,此結果可能因兩種多醣類混合時會使膠體特性改變。
在烹煮性試驗方面,比較添加不同配方膠群製成之貢丸於70℃恆溫水中連續烹煮(1 hr , 2 hr , 3 hr , 4 hr),除了凝膠性和味道略差以外,其口感及接受性尚能維持,故將貢丸置於70℃水中保溫是可行的換言之,在配方中添加不同組合的膠體可增加貢丸的耐煮性。
在冷凍儲存試驗,組織方面(15 , 30 , 45 , 60天),僅有添加10%蒟蒻膠和對照組相較有顯著的降低的情況。
不論是卡德蘭膠,蒟蒻膠,鹿角菜膠,鹿角菜膠加蒟蒻膠,蒟蒻膠加卡德藍膠,鹿角菜膠加卡德藍膠之5%添加量,均較10%添加量獲得品評員的喜好。以總接受性來說,5%的卡德蘭膠組具有最好的接受性。
"Kung-wan", an emulsified meatball, is a very popular meat product in Chinese communities. It is different from western style meatballs.
"Tradition kung-wan"(control group) major material are pork leg muscle (75%) and pork back fat ( 25%). Generally speaking, kung-wanes are required to have higher hardness, brittleness and elasticity. A three-factor relatable central composite design was adopted for these study gum-hydrates on qualities of low-fat Kung-wan.
The study use different level of gum contain (0%, 5% and 10%) , ( konjac premixed with Ca(OH)2) gel,(curdlan) gel,(κ-carrageenan) gel,( curdlan and κ-carrageenan) gel,( κ-carrageenan and konjac with Ca(OH) 2)gel, (curdlan and konjac with Ca(OH)2)gel were chosen for further on texture, higher hardness, brittleness , elasticity and sensory qualities and fat substitutes of the low-fat kung-wan.
The experimental result shows with the addition of different gum products provided are juicy; may be with WHC due to the addition of gum. "Kung-wan" adding of different gum product weightlessness and color there are not difference of showing to control group.
Results indicated: The hardness, gel strength and hardness of TPA is also on was decreased after added to the(5%,10%) singular gum (konjac gel , curdlan gel , κ-carrageenan gel) .Addition(5%,10%) mixture of gum( curdlan , κ-carrageenan) gel,( κ-carrageenan ,konjac with Ca(OH)2)gel, (curdlan , konjac with Ca(OH)2)gel in contrary motion increase of TPA.
Series reheating experiment indicated: The series reheating (70℃) process for either 1, 2, 3, or 4 hr gum-hydrates were insignificant except for gel strength and taste inferior to contrast group.
As to frozen storage experiment (-18℃) process 15, 30, 45, or 60 day: The breading intension, gel strength and hardness of TPA are also on increasing with after frozen storage. Except for add 10% konjac gel with contrast group looks than have situation that reduce, have apparent difference.
Overall sensory evaluation, adds 5% of curdlan gel has the best acceptance.
In conclusion, the aims of this study were to find a better method of addition of three-factor gum-hydrates to "Kung-wan" comparing to control low-fat in sensory and shelf stability without causing adverse effects on texture. Furthermore, it provided juiciness and chewiness to Kung-wan and attained higher overall acceptability.
1. 前言-------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
2. 文獻探討-------------------------------------------------------------- 3
2.1貢丸----------------------------------------------------------------- 3
2.1.1 乳化定義--------------------------------------------------- 3
2.1.2 乳化型式--------------------------------------------------- 3
2.1.3 乳化安定性機制------------------------------------------ 4
2.1.4 乳化凝膠機制--------------------------------------------- 5
2.2多醣類-------------------------------------------------------------- 8
2.2.1 多醣類的分類--------------------------------------------- 8
2.2.2 多醣類的特性--------------------------------------------- 9
2.2.3 多醣類與蛋白質------------------------------------------ 10
2.2.4 多醣類與多醣類------------------------------------------ 12
2.3蒟蒻----------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.3.1 蒟蒻之來源及製備--------------------------------------- 16
2.3.2 蒟蒻之理化特性------------------------------------------ 17
2.3.3 蒟蒻之凝膠機制------------------------------------------ 18
2.3.4食品上的應用---------------------------------------------- 18
2.4卡德藍膠----------------------------------------------------------- 24
2.4.1 來源與製法------------------------------------------------ 24
2.4.2 化學結構--------------------------------------------------- 24
2.4.3 凝膠機制及特性------------------------------------------ 25
2.4.4 食品上的應用--------------------------------------------- 28
2.5鹿角菜膠----------------------------------------------------------- 30
2.5.1 來源及製備------------------------------------------------ 30
2.5.2 化學結構--------------------------------------------------- 30
2.5.3 凝膠機制及特性------------------------------------------ 31
2.5.4 食品上的應用--------------------------------------------- 32
3. 材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------- 35
3.1試驗材料與實驗設備-------------------------------------------- 35
3.1.1 試驗材料--------------------------------------------------- 35
3.1.2 加工設備--------------------------------------------------- 35
3.1.3 分析設備--------------------------------------------------- 36
3.2試驗配方----------------------------------------------------------- 36
3.3製作流程----------------------------------------------------------- 37
3.4分析項目----------------------------------------------------------- 39
3.4.1物性分析---------------------------------------------------- 35
3.4.2耐煮試驗---------------------------------------------------- 39
3.4.3凍結儲存試驗---------------------------------------------- 40
3.4.4蒸煮失重率------------------------------------------------- 40
3.4.5官能品評---------------------------------------------------- 40
4. 結果與討論----------------------------------------------------------- 42
4.1食用膠添加在貢丸內對製品之流變性----------------------- 42
4.2耐煮性試驗(第二及第四配方膠群組)------------------------ 48
4.3凍結儲存試驗(第二及第四配方群組)------------------------ 50
4.4蒸煮熟成前後失重率-------------------------------------------- 53
4.5官能品評----------------------------------------------------------- 54
5. 結論-------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------ 58
附錄------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65
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