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研究生:張宏昌
研究生(外文):CHANG HUNG CHANG
論文名稱:基於即時性可變速率服務下Linux的HTB及CBQ效能之測試與分析
論文名稱(外文):Evaluating Performance of Hierarchal Link-Sharing Mechanisms with Real-Time Variable Bit-Rates Traffics under Linux
指導教授:王欣平
指導教授(外文):WANG SHIN PING
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:即時性服務
外文關鍵詞:Link-SharingCBQHTBLinuxVBR
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:200
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
由於網際網路的普及以及多媒體技術的發展,因此出現了許
多透過網際網路來傳送語音及串流媒體的通訊控制協定如RTP、
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)[1] 等被發展作為資料的溝通協
定,這些協定都是為了能建立、修改、結束通話連線所制定的控
制信令,使得網際網路由單純的資料訊息交換,提升到即時影音
傳遞。使用網際網路來替代傳統的影音傳輸,不僅可以有效地節
省費用,並且可以使用許多額外的功能,例如互動式影音及視訊
電話等等。但即時性影音封包不像其它應用服務所產生的封包,
可以重傳上次因網路壅塞、頻寬不足等因素所造成的封包遺失。
因為語音封包是屬於即時性的資料,封包重傳對其並無任何幫
助,所以盡可能地不讓其發生封包遺失才是最好的方法。正因為
網路應用服務如雨後春筍般地出現,如何能在有限的頻寬資源中
將各種類型之封包及頻寬妥善分配才是根本的解決之道。
隨著寬頻上網的普及,網路的應用也朝向多樣化發展。各種
網路應用對服務品質的需求不同,如:線上交談需要即時性的互
動,多媒體串流影音播放需要大量的頻寬。網路使用者若能依據
不同應用的特性來分配頻寬的多少與使用頻寬的優先權,將可對
網路資源作合理而有效的運用。Linux 下以類別為基礎的
Link-Sharing 架構這幾年來受到矚目,Link-Sharing 架構中又以
Class Based Queuing (CBQ) [4][5]及Hierarchical Token Bucket
(HTB) [6]為實作比較常見。在Link-Sharing 架構實作中,普遍認為HTB 處理封包及頻寬管理能力皆優於CBQ。但是很少文獻對
於即時性可變速率服務在HTB 及CBQ 實作下能有完整的測試及
分析,因此本文將對即時性串流媒體及階層式頻寬分享
(Hierarchical Link-sharing)做系統性的測試及探討,其內容包括討
探在測試環境下HTB及CBQ對即時性串流媒體的測試效能,HTB
及CBQ 發生頻寬分享時,是否能夠達到即時性串流媒體Delay及
Jitter 的要求。
Because of the popularization of the internet network and development of the multimedia technology, there are a lot of the pronunciation and communication of media and control the protocol like RTP through the internet network, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) [1] ,etc. are regarded as the protocol of linking up of the
materials by development, these protocols are all for set up , revise , finish the control of conversation line , make internet network exchange by simple materials information, rise to real time video to transmit. Use internet network is substitute a
traditional real time video to transmit , can save effectively not merely to come, and can use a lot of extra functions , such as interactive video and internet phone ,etc. But the real time video package is not like other use serving the package produced , can pass last time because network droped , wide getting enough package caused of the factor lose frequently again. Because the pronunciation package is instant materials, the package does not have any help to it to spread again, so it is the best
method not to allow it and to lose as much as possible.Because the network application service appears like the mushrooms after rain, how be can frequently among the wide resource all kinds of package and frequently wide to it assigns to be a basic solution properly in a limited one.
With the wide-band popularization that surfed the Net, the application of the network moves towards the diversification and develops too. Various kinds of network application, to serving the demand for quality differently, for instance: On-line to is it need instant interdynamic of to talk, multimedia bunch flow audio-visual to is it need a large amount of frequently wide to broadcast. If network user can distribute the frequently wide amount and frequently wide priority of use according to different characteristics that use , can make rational and effective
application to resources of the network. Link-Sharing structure based on classification has been attracted attention over these several years under Linux, with Class Based Queuing in Link-Sharing structure (CBQ) [4] [5] and Hierarchical Token Bucket (HTB ) [6], in order to make comparisons in fact commonly. In Link-Sharing structure is done in fact , generally think that HTB deals with the
package and wide managerial ability is all superior to CBQ frequently . But few documents serve the getting instant variable speed under the circumstances that HTB and CBQ are done in fact there can be intact test and analysis, so this text flow
media and frequently wide to is it make systemic test and discussion to share stratum type to instant bunch, content visit HTB and CBQ flow test efficiency of media to instant bunch under testing environment to demand to include, HTB and CBQ happen frequently widely while sharing , can reach media Delay and request
for Jitter that bunch real time video .
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權頁...................................................................................................iii
中文摘要...............................................................................................iv
ABSTRACT ..........................................................................................vi
誌謝.....................................................................................................viii
目錄.......................................................................................................ix
圖目錄.................................................................................................xiii
表目錄.................................................................................................. xv
第一章 緒論........................................................................................ 1
1.1 簡介...................................................................................... 1
1.2 研究動機.............................................................................. 2
1.3 論文架構.............................................................................. 3
第二章 相關研究背景........................................................................ 4
2.1 頻寬管理介紹..................................................................... 4
2.2 網路頻寬共享架構............................................................. 6
2.3 串流媒體介紹..................................................................... 9
2.3.1 串流技術(Streaming)....................................... 9
2.3.2 串流媒體傳輸協定............................................. 10
2.3.3 串流媒體的播放型式......................................... 10
2.4 LINUX的資料封包排程與頻寬管理............................... 11
2.4.1 流量控制原理...................................................... 12
2.4.1.1 流量控制方式:................................. 13
2.4.1.2 Linux 流量控制架構......................... 14
2.4.1.3 現有的排程機制種類......................... 15
第三章 研究方法.............................................................................. 19
3.1 環境和相關工具軟體介紹............................................... 20
3.2 RTP TOOLS 的介紹............................................................ 21
3.3 NTP 網路校時技術........................................................... 24
3.3.1 網路校時技術的發展......................................... 24
3.3.2 網路時間協定的方法與架構............................. 25
3.3.3 時間校正的方法.................................................. 25
3.4 採用之研究方法與原因................................................... 27
第四章 實驗分析與討論.................................................................. 29
4.1 測試環境介紹................................................................... 29
4.2 實驗步驟............................................................................ 33
4.3 VBR 串流媒體在HTB 及CBQ 架構上的效能測試..... 38
4.3.1 H.263與MPEG在HTB架構上的上層封包借用
數.......................................................................... 38
4.3.2 H.263 與MPEG 在HTB 架構上的時間延遲
(Delay).................................................................. 40
4.3.3 H.263 與MPEG 在HTB 架構上的延遲抖動
(Delay Jitter) ........................................................ 43
4.3.4 H.263與MPEG在CBQ架構上的上層封包借用
數.......................................................................... 45
4.3.5 H.263 與MPEG 在CBQ 架構上的時間延遲
(Delay).................................................................. 48
4.3.6 H.263 與MPEG 在CBQ 架構上的延遲抖動
(Delay Jitter) ........................................................ 51
4.4 HTB 及CBQ 增加類別及層別測試............................... 54
4.4.1 H.263 在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的封包借
用數...................................................................... 55
4.4.2 H.263 在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的時間延
遲(Delay).............................................................. 56
4.4.3 H.263 在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的延遲抖
動(Delay Jitter) .................................................... 57
4.4.4 MPEG在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的封包借
用數...................................................................... 58
4.4.5 MPEG在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的時間延
遲(Delay).............................................................. 59
4.4.6 MPEG在HTB架構上各種層別組合下的延遲抖
動(Delay Jitter) .................................................... 60
4.4.7 H.263 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的封包借
用數...................................................................... 61
4.4.8 H.263 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的時間延
遲(Delay).............................................................. 62
4.4.9 H.263 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的延遲抖
動(Delay Jitter) .................................................... 63
4.4.10 MPEG 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的封包
借用數.................................................................. 64
4.4.11 MPEG 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的時間
延遲(Delay).......................................................... 65
4.4.12 MPEG 在CBQ 架構上各種層別組合下的延遲
抖動(Delay Jitter) ................................................ 66
4.5 完整MPEG 與H.263 串流影音樣本測試..................... 67
4.5.1 完整串流影音樣本在CBQ 及HTB架構上的封
包借用數.............................................................. 69
4.5.2 完整串流影音樣本在CBQ 及HTB架構上的時
間延遲(Delay) ..................................................... 70
4.5.3 完整串流影音樣本在CBQ 及HTB架構上的延
遲抖動(Delay Jitter) ............................................ 71
第五章 結論...................................................................................... 72
參考文獻.............................................................................................. 75
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Peterson, R. Sparks,M. Handley and E. Schooler, "SIP: Session
Initiation Protocol", IETF RFC 3261,June 2002.
[2] R. Braden, D. Clark and S. Shenker, "Integrated Services in the
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[3] S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang and W. Weiss,
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[11] IPERF , http://dast.nlanr.net/Projects/Iperf/
[12] TCPDUMP , http://www.tcpdump.org/
[13] GNUPLOT , http://www.gnuplot.info/
[14] PERL , http://www.perl.com
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SIGCOMM '88 , August 1988, pp. 314-329.
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[24] E. Hahne , “ Round Robin scheduling for fair flow control , ”
Ph.D. thesis , Dept. Elect. Eng. And Computer. Sci. , M.I.T. , Dec.
1986.
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