跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.175.191.36) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/02 14:25
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:郭盈均
研究生(外文):Ying-Chun Kuo
論文名稱:單車休閒者遊憩動機、持久涉入與其心流體驗關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Relationships of Cyclists’ Leisure Motivation and Enduring Involvement to Their Flow Experience
指導教授:吳淑女吳淑女引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Nui Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:休閒事業管理學系碩士在職專班
學門:民生學門
學類:運動休閒及休閒管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:單車休閒者遊憩動機持久涉入心流體驗
外文關鍵詞:cyclistsleisure motivationenduring involvementflow experience
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:61
  • 點閱點閱:672
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:16
本研究在探討單車休閒者之遊憩動機、持久涉入與其心流體驗之關係。問卷採取便利抽樣方式選取參與中部地區單車社團活動者,共發放600份,回收有效問卷463份,有效回收率為77.2%。資料分析方法包含描述性統計、信度分析、t檢定、單因子變異數分析、Pearson積差相關分析及內容分析等。
樣本以40歲以上男性為主,已婚、學歷為高中職者居多,月收入在20,001~60,000元間,從事單車休閒年資平均為4.76年。假設驗證結果摘述如下:(1)單車休閒者性別、居住地、婚姻、教育程度及個人月收入不同,在其遊憩動機有顯著差異。(2)單車休閒者性別及個人月收入不同在其持久涉入程度上有顯著差異。(3)單車休閒者性別、年齡、婚姻及月收入不同在其心流體驗上有顯著差異。(4)單車休閒者之參與行為特性與其持久涉入部分呈現顯著線性正相關。(5)單車休閒者之參與行為特性與其心流體驗部分呈現顯著線性正相關。(6)單車休閒者之遊憩動機、持久涉入及心流體驗兩兩之間有顯著線性正相關。
本研究最後就結果進行討論與研究意涵之陳述,並對政府、業者及未來研究者提出建議。
This research was aimed at exploring relationships among cyclists’ leisure motiva-tion, enduring involvement, and flow experience.
Using a convenience sampling method, twenty-two cycling clubs were first se-lected from a list of mid-Taiwan bikes’ clubs. Then, members of these clubs were solic-ited to respond to a 4-page questionnaire. Six hundreds of questionnaires were distrib-uted. A total of 463 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 77.2%. Initial descriptive statistics were run in order to examine the demographic and participation patterns of the sample. Reliability analysis was conducted to test all the scales. In addition, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and content analysis were performed for data analysis.
A majority of the sample were male. Most of the respondents were over the age of 40, and reported monthly incomes of NT$20,001~60,000. They were primarily married, and had graduated from senior high schools. Respondents had been cycling for an av-erage of 4.76 years.
The results of bivariate analyses indicated that:
1. there were significant differences in leisure motivation among cyclists with varied demographic background. (i. e., gender, residence, age, marital status, education and monthly income);
2. there were significant differences in enduring involvement among cyclists with varied demographic background. (i.e., gender and monthly income);
3. there were significant differences in flow experience among cyclists with varied demographic background. (i.e., gender, age, marital status and monthly income);
4. there was a significant positive, linear relationship between cyclists’ cycling behavior and enduring involvement;
5. there was a significant positive, linear relationship between cyclists’ cycling behavior and enduring involvement;
6. there was a significant positive, linear relationship between cyclists’ leisure motiva-tion and enduring involvement;
7. there was a significant positive, linear relationship between cyclists’ enduring in-volvement and flow experience; and
8. there was a significant positive, linear relationship between cyclists’ leisure motiva-tion and flow experience.
Finally, according to the findings, discussion was made and recommendations were offered to related organizations and future studies.

Key Words: cyclists, leisure motivation, enduring involvement, flow experience
內容目錄
中文摘要 ..................... iii
英文摘要 ..................... iv
誌謝辭  ..................... vi
內容目錄 ..................... vii
表目錄  ..................... ix
圖目錄  ..................... x
第一章  緒論................... 1
  第一節  研究動機與緣起............ 1
  第二節  研究問題............... 4
  第三節  研究對象與範圍............ 5
  第四節  研究限制............... 6
第二章  文獻探討................. 7
  第一節  單車休閒活動............. 7
  第二節  動機理論............... 19
  第三節  持久涉入............... 23
  第四節  心流體驗............... 34
第三章  研究方法................. 44
  第一節  研究架構與研究假設.......... 44
  第二節  問卷設計與操作型定義......... 45
  第三節  抽樣方法............... 49
  第四節  預試與和正式調查........... 50
  第五節  資料處理與分析............ 50
第四章  研究結果................. 54
  第一節  量表信度分析與描述.......... 54
  第二節  樣本背景特性............. 55
  第三節  假設驗證............... 65
第五章  討論與建議................ 78
  第一節  研究結果摘要............. 78
  第二節  綜合討論............... 81
  第三節  建議................. 91
參考文獻 ..................... 97
附錄A  單車休閒者遊憩動機、持久涉入與其心流體驗調
     查表................... 118
附錄B  全省單車路線現況............. 122
附錄C  單變項之次數分配表............ 126

表目錄
表 2- 1 單車發展簡史................ 8
表 2- 2 1950-2003世界單車與汽車製造統計....... 9
表 2- 3 世界各國單車提升倡導活動.......... 11
表 2- 4 台灣地區單車社團統計表........... 12
表 2- 5 動機構面彙整表............... 22
表 2- 6 遊憩動機相關實證研究............ 24
表 2- 7 持久涉入相關實證研究............ 32
表 2- 8 心流體驗相關實證研究............ 43
表 3- 1 研究假設及驗證之分析方法整理表....... 53
表 4- 1 遊憩動機量表之信度分析與描述表....... 57
表 4- 2 持久涉入量表之信度分析與描述表....... 58
表 4- 3 心流體驗量表之信度分析與描述表....... 59
表 4- 4 樣本個人背景特性之次數分配表........ 61
表 4- 5 樣本參與行為特性之次數分配表........ 62
表 4- 6 從事單車休閒之獲得............. 65
表 4- 7 單車休閒者個人背景特性與遊憩動機之分析... 70
表 4- 8 單車休閒者個人背景特性與持久涉入之分析... 72
表 4- 9 單車休閒者個人背景特性與心流體驗之分析... 73
表 4- 10 參與行為特性與持久涉入相關係數表...... 75
表 4- 11 參與行為特性與心流體驗相關係數表...... 75
表 4- 12 遊憩動機與持久涉入相關係數表........ 76
表 4- 13 持久涉入與心流體驗相關係數表........ 76
表 4- 14 遊憩動機與心流體驗相關係數表........ 77
表 5- 1 研究假設驗證結果摘要表........... 80
表 5- 2 研究假設驗證結果摘要表........... 81
表 B- 1 休閒級路線................. 122
表 B- 2 進階級路線................. 124
表 B- 3 挑戰級路線................. 125
表 C- 1 單車休閒者年齡次數分配表.......... 126
表 C- 2 單車休閒者從事單車休閒年資次數分配表.... 127
表 C- 3 過去一年從每月從事單車休閒次數次數分配表.. 128
表 C- 4 過去一年單車休閒花費次數分配表....... 129
表 C- 5 投資單車相關裝備金額次數分配表....... 130
表 C- 6 過去一年單日內騎乘最遠距離次數分配表.... 131
表 C- 7 騎乘技術自評次數分配表........... 132


圖目錄
圖 2- 1 研究架構圖................. 36
圖 2- 2 四頻道心流體驗模式............. 36
圖 2- 3 修訂後之心流模式.............. 37
圖 3- 1 研究架構圖................. 44
2005高雄縣單車觀光文化季(2005),活動專區[線上資料],來源:http://kscgbike. myweb.hinet.net [2006, September 17]。

Ballantine, R., & Grant, R. (2004). 自行車聖經(黃小萍譯),台北:貓頭鷹,(原文於1992年出版)。

Bammel, G., & Burrus-Bammel, L. L. (1996). 休閒與人類行為(涂淑芳譯),台北:桂冠圖書,(原文於1995年出版)。

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1998).生命的心流(陳秀娟譯),台北:天下遠見,(原文於1997年出版)。

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2001). 快樂從心開始(張定綺譯),台北:天下遠見,(原文於1990年出版)。

Godbey, G. (2000a). 21世紀的休閒與休閒服務(張春波、陳定家等譯),昆明:雲南人民出版社,(原文於1997年出版)。

Godbey, G. (2000b). 你生命中的休閒(康筝譯),昆明:雲南人民出版社,(原文於1994年出版)。

王文科(2000),教育研究法(7版),台北:五南。
台灣地區俱樂部名單(2006, August 15),單車誌,27,162-163。

全台自行車道報給你知(2006, August 15),單車誌,27,159。
自行車新文化基金會(2006),國際無車日[線上資料],來源:http://www.cyclingland.org.tw/car-1.asp [2006, November 27]。

行政院主計處(2006),95年10月人力資源調查統計月報[線上資料]。來源:http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=16701 &ctNode=3247 [2006, December 15]。

行政院體育委員會(2005),95年度運動人口倍增實施計畫[線上資料],來源:http://www.ncpfs.gov.tw/news/news3-1.aspx? No=97# [2005, December 28]。

行政院體育委員會(2004),推行全國自行車道系統計畫[線上資料],來源:http://www.sac.gov.tw/annualreport/Quarterly 141/index.htm [2006, July 12]。

余玥林(2004),單車活動參與者的目標取向、社會支持和休閒型態對休閒效益的影響,雲林科技大學休閒運動研究所碩士 論文。

吳永發(2006),路跑運動參與者持續涉入、休閒效益與幸福感之研究,國立體育學院體育推廣學系碩士論文。

吳萬益(2000),企業研究方法,台北:華泰文化。

步道萬里車道千里611健康開步走(2006),單車誌線上電子報,111[線上資料]。來源:http://www.cycling-update.info/k/ cu_eNews_main/cycling_cu_eNews.htm [2006, May 15]。

兩馬觀光季白馬王子、鐵馬公主選拔,玩全台灣旅遊網[線上資料],來源:http://www.okgo.com.tw/news/20060821225 732.html [200 6, August 21]。

周盟桂(2001),路徑,高雄:串門文化。

洪震宇,林慧純(2006, April 1),單車悠遊風現在最流行,康健雜誌,89,40-42。

馬克褚工作室(2006),路線資料庫[線上資料],來源:http:// www.markchoo.com.tw [2006, October 15]。

張光華(2004),自行車遊客行為特性之研究-以北海岸風景區為例,中華大學建築與都市計畫學系碩士論文。

張孝銘,林樹旺,余國振(2004,2),慢跑消費者活動參與動機持續涉入與休閒行為之相關研究,大專體育學刊, 6(1),83-93。

張佩娟(2003),休閒運動參與動機與滿意度之相關研究以雲林醫院員工為例,雲林科技大學休閒運動學系碩士論文。
張春興(1995a),張氏心理學辭典,台北:東華書局。

張春興(1995b),心理學,台北:東華書局。

梁建文(2005),以消費者產品偏好調查探討市場分群與產品屬性之關聯-以登山自行車為例,東海大學工業設計學系碩士論文。

郭淑菁(2003),登山社員休閒涉入、休閒滿意度與幸福感之研究,大葉大學休閒事業管理學系碩士論文。

陳心怡(2004),自行車騎乘者專業化程度與場所依戀關係之研究以台中大度山區騎乘者為例,逢甲大學建築研究所碩士論文。

陳正昌(2004),行為及社會科學統計學統計軟體應用,台北:巨流。

陳偉仁(2005),水肺潛水活動之遊憩動機、持久性涉入及專門化關係之研究,銘傳大學觀光研究所碩士論文。

陳嘉維(2003) ,自行車造形喜好對騎乘心理感受影響之研究,朝陽科技大學設計研究所碩士論文。

彭逸芝(2005),遊憩自行車使用者之遊憩涉入與地方依附關係之研究,銘傳大學觀光研究所碩士論文。

曾建榮(2006, March 15),創新服務科專騎出台灣自行車島,技術尖兵,135,7-9。

黃文宗(2006),彰化市國小教師休閒運動參與動機與參與現況之研究,大葉大學休閒事業管理學系碩士論文。

黃淮琪(2006, March 15),差異化創新台灣自行車享譽國際,技術尖兵,135,2-3。

楊胤甲(2006),愛好自行車休閒運動者之流暢體驗、休閒效益與幸福感之研究,靜宜大學觀光事業研究所碩士論文。

趙文祺(2004),體驗教育活動參與者內在動機、活動投入程度與神馳體驗關係之探討,大葉大學休閒事業管理學系碩士論文。

鄭育雄(2003),遊憩專門化衡量指標之研究-以自行車活動為例,靜宜大學觀光事業研究所碩士論文。

賴子敬(2003),台中市高爾夫參與者參與動機和參與行為之研究,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理學系碩士論文。

謝芳靜(2004),自行車遊憩環境偏好與環境評價之研究-以新竹市十七公里海岸自行車專用道為例,中華大學建築與都市計畫學系碩士論文。

謝清秀(2004),大專網球選手休閒動機休閒參與及休閒滿意之研究,國立體育學院體育研究所碩士論文。

鍾偉志(2006),認真性休閒與參與動機、休閒阻礙關係之研究-以網球活動為例,南華大學旅遊事業管理研究所碩士論文。

聶喬齡(2000),以心理技能運動表現與運動流暢經驗的關係研究,國立體育學院體育研究所碩士論文。

魏攸芳(2006),2006苗栗國際無車日暨龍鳳漁港電動車嘉年華,大台灣旅遊網[線上資料]。來源:http://www.trave l-web.com.tw/Show/Style1/News/c1_News.asp?SItemId=0271030&ProgramNo=A000001000001&SubjectNo=33969&Page=1 [2006, September 19]。

國際無車日(2005),關於無車日緣由[線上資料],來源:http:// www.traffic.tpc.gov.tw/bicycle/p05.html [2006, September 9]。

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Be-havior and Human Decision Processes. 50, 179-211.

Ballantine, R., & Grant, R. (1992). Ultimate bicycle book. London: Dorling & Kindersley.

Bammel, G., & Burrus-Bammel, L. L. (1995). Leisure and human be-havior (3rd ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown.

Belk, R. W. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2, 157-164.

Bloch, P. H. (1990). Involvement, enthusiasm, fanaticism: An inter-disciplinary perspective on commitment to recreational pursuits. Paper presented at the National Recreation and Park Association, Leisure Research Symposium, Phoenix, AZ.

Bloch, P. H. & Bruce, G. D. (1984), Product involvement as leisure behaviour, Advances in Consumer Research, 11, Provo, Utah: Association for Consumer Research, 197-202.

Bryan, H. (1977), Leisure value system and recreational specialization: the case of trout fishermen, Journal of Leisure Research, 9, 174- 187.

Clarke, G. S., & Haworth, T. J. (1994). Flow experience in the daily lives of sixth-form college students. British Journal of Psy-chology, 85, 511-523.

Coleman, D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1993). Leisure and health: The role of social support and self-determination. Journal of Leisure Re-search, 25(2), 111-128.

Confer, J., Vogelsong, H., Graefe, A., & Solan, D. (1996). Relation-ships between motivations and recreation activity preferences among Delaware State Park visitors: An exploratory analysis. In: Kuentzel, W. (ed.). Proceedings of the 1996 Northeastern Rec-reation Research Symposium. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-232, 146–153.

Crandall, R. (1980). Motivations for Leisure. Journal of Leisure Re-. search, 12 (1), 45-53.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Fran-cisco, California: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). The flow experience and its significance for human psychology. In M. Csikszentmihalyi & I. Csikszent-mihalyi, I. (Eds.) (1988). Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp. 15-35). New York: Cam-bridge University Press.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal ex-perience. New York: Harper & Row.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of en-gagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The contribution of flow to positive psychology: Scientific essays in honor of Martin E. P. Seligman. In J. E. Gillham, (Ed.), The science of optimism and hope. (pp. 387-395). Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.

Dimanche, F., Havitz, M. E., & Howard, D. R. (1991). Testing the in-volvement profile scale in the context of selected recreational and touristic activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(1), 51-66.

Driver, B. L. (1976). Quantification of outdoor recreationists' prefer-ences research. Camping and Environmental Education, Penn State Series II, University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State Uni-versity.

Driver, B. L. (1977). Item pool for scales designed to quantify the psychological outcomes desired and expected from recreation participation. Unpublished. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Driver, B.L. (1983). Master list of items for Recreation Experience Preference scales and domains. Unpublished document. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

Driver, B. L. & Brown, P. J. (1975). A social-psychological definition of recreation demand, with implications for recreation resource planning. Assessing Demand for Outdoor Recreation, 12(8), 62-88.
Driver, B. L., & Knopf, R. C. (1976). Temporary escape: One product of sport fisheries management. Fisheries, 1, 2-29.

Driver, B. L., & Tocher, S. R. (1970). Toward a behavioral interpreta-tion of recreation engagements with implications for planning. In B.L. Driver (Ed.), Elements of Outdoor Recreation Planning. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms Mich.

Ewert, A. (1994). Playing the edge: Motivation and risk taking in a high-altitude wilderness environment. Environment and Behav-ior, 26(1), 3–24.

Godbey, G. (1994). Leisure in your life: An exploration (4th ed.). State College, Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing.

Godbey, G. (1997). Leisure and leisure services in the 21st century. State College, Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing.

Graefe, A. R., Ditton, R. B., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Schreyer, R. (1981). Notes on the stability of the factor structure of leisure meanings. Journal of Leisure Research, 4, 51-65.

Graefe, A. R., Thapa, B., Confer, J. J., & Absher, J. D. (2000), Rela-tionships between trip motivations and selected variables among Allegheny National Forest visitors. USDA Forest Service Pro-ceedings, RMRS-P-15-VOL-4.

Guieford, J. P. (1965), Fundamental statistics in psychology and edu-cation (4th ed.). New York: McGram-Hill.

Gunter, B. G., & Gunter, N. C. (1980). Leisure styles: A conceptual framework for modern leisure The Sociological Quarterly, 21(Summer), 361-374.

Havitz, M. E., & Dimanche, F. (1990). Propositions for guiding the empirical testing of the involvement construct in recreational and tourist contexts. Leisure Sciences, 12, 179-196.

Havitz, M. E., & Dimanche, F. (1997). Leisure involvement revisited: Conceptual conundrums and measurement advances. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(3), 245-278.

Havitz, M. E., & Howard, D. R. (1995). How enduring is enduring involvement: A seasonal examination of three recreational ac-tivities. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(3), 255-276.

Havitz, M. E., & Mannell, R. C. (2005). Enduring involvement, situ-ational involvement, and flow in leisure and non-leisure activi-ties. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(2), 152-177.

Haworth, J. T., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1997). Work, leisure and well-being. New York: Routledge.

Homans, G. C. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms (Rev. ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Houston, M. J., & Rothschild, M. L. (1978), Conceptual and meth-odological perspectives on involvement, Research Frontiers in Marketing: Dialogues and Directions, Subhash C. Jain, ed., Chicago: American Marketing Association, 184-187.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1989). Motivation for leisure. In E. L. Jackson & T. L. Burton (Eds.), Understanding leisure and recreation: Map-ping the past charting the future (pp. 247-279). State College: R. A. Venture Publishing.

Jackson, S. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. C. (1999). Flow in sports: The keys to optimal experiences and performances. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2002). Assessing flow in physical ac-tivity: The Flow State Scale-2 and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 133-150.

Jackson, S. A., & Eklund, R. C. (2004). The Flow Scales manual. Morgantown, West Virginia: Fitness Information Technology.

Jackson, S. A., Ford, S. K., Kimiecik, J.C., & Marsh, H. W. (1998). Psychological correlates of flow in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4, 358-378.

Jackson, S. A., & Marsh, H.W. (1996). Development and validation of a scale to measure optimal experience: The Flow State Scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 17-35.

Keeling, A. (1999). Cycle turism, Information Pack TT21: Sustrans routes for people. United Kingdom: Sustrans Charity [Online]. Available: http: www.sustrans.org.uk [2006, October 17]

Kim, S., Scott, D., & Crompton, J. (1997). An exploration of the rela-tionships among social psychological involvement, behavioral involvement, commitment, and future intentions in the context of birdwatching. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(3), 320–341.

Knopf, R., & Lime, D. (1984). A Recreation Manager’s Guide to Un-derstanding River Use and Users. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report WO-38.

Knopf, R. C., Driver, B. L., & Bassett, J. R. (1973). Motivations for fishing. In transactions of the 28th American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. (pp.191-204). Washington, D.C., Wildlife Manegements institute.

Krugman, H. E. (1965). The Impact of Television Advertising Learn-ing Without Involvement, Public Opinion Quarterly, 29, 349-356.

Kyle, G. T., Absher, J., & Hammitt, W. (2005). An examination of the motivation-enduring involvement relationship. Proceedings of The 2005 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 238-246). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeast-ern Research Station.

Kyle, G. T., & Mowen, A. J. (2003). An examination of the relation-ship between leisure constraints, involvement, and commitment. Proceedings of The 2003 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, GTR-NE-317, 328-337.

LaChausse, R. G. (2006). Motives of competitive and non-competitive cyclists. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29(4), 304-314.

Larsen, J. (2002). Selected bicycle promotion initiatives around the world, Bicycle statistics, Earth Policy Institute [On line ]. Available: http://www.ibike.org/library/statistics-data.htm [2006, October 29]

Laurent, G., & Kapferer, J. N. (1985). Measuring consumer involve-ment profiles. Journal of Marketing Research, 22(1), 41-53.

Lawler, E. E. (1973). Motivations in work organizations. Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole.

Manfredo, M. J. (1984). The comparability of onsite and offsite meas-ures of recreation needs. Journal of Leisure Research, 16(3), 245-249.
Manfredo, M. J., Driver, B. L., & Tarrant, M. A. (1996). Measuring leisure motivation: A meta-analysis of the Recreation Experi-ence Preference Scales. Journal of Leisure Research, 28(3), 188-213.

Mannell, R. C. (1993). High investment activity and life satisfaction among older adults: Committed, serious leisure and flow activities. In J. R. Kelly (Ed.), Activity and aging (pp. 125-145). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

Mannell, R. C., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A Social Psychology of Leisure . State College, Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing.

Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality (2nd. ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

McIntyre, N. (1989). The personal meaning of participation: Enduring involvement. Journal of Leisure Research, 21(2), 167-179.

McIntyre, N. (1992). Involvement in risk recreation: A comparison of objective and subjective measures of engagement. Journal of Leisure Research. 24, 64-71.

McIntyre, N., & Pigram, J. J. (1992). Recreation specialization reex-amined: The case of vehicle-based campers. Leisure Sciences, 14, 3-15.

Moneta, G. B., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). The effect of per-ceived challenges and skills on the quality of subjective experi-ence. Journal of Personality, 64, 275-310.

Mozer, D. (2006). Bicycle history. International Bicycle Fund [Online]. Available: http://www.ibike.org/library/historytimeline.htm#ch ronology [2006, October 7]

Mygatt, E. (2005, 12). Selected bicycle promotion initiatives around the world, 2005, Earth Policy Institute [Online]. Available: http: //www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/Bike/Bike_data.htm#fig1 [2006, November 12]

Novak, T. P., & Hoffman, D. L. (1997). Measuring the flow experi-ence among web users. Paper presented at Interval Research Corporation, Project 2000, Vanderbilt University. [Online]. Available: http://www2000.ogsm.vanderbilt.edu/ [2006, No-vember 12]

Park, S. H. (1996). Relationships between involvement and attitudinal loyalty constructs in adult fitness programs. Journal of Leisure Research, 28, 233-250.

Petty R. E., Cacioppo J. T., Schumann D (1983). Central and Periph-eral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. Journal of Consumer Research, September: 135-146.
Ray, P. H., & Anderson, S. R. (2000). The cultural creatives: How 50 million people are changing the world. New York: Harmony Books.

Richins, M. L., & Bloch, P. H. (1986) , After the new wears off: the temporal context of product involvement, Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2), 280-285.

Richins, M. L., Bloch, P. H., & McQuarrie, E. F.(1992). How en-during and situational involvement combine to create involve-ment responses. Journal of consumer psychology, 1(2), 143-153.

Ritchie, B. W. (1998). Bicycle tourism in the South Island of New Zealand: Planning and management issues. Tourism Manage-ment, 19(6), 567-582.

Rosenthal, D. H., Driver, B. L., & Waldman, D. (1982). Construct va-lidity of instruments measuring recreationists’ preferences. Lei-sure Sciences. 5, 89-108.

Rothschild, M. L. (1984), Perspectives on involvement: current prob-lems and future directions, Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 216-217.

Selin, S.W., & Howard, D. R. (1988). Ego-involvement and leisure behavior: A conceptual specification. Journal of Leisure Re-search, 20, 237-244.

Sherif, M., & Cantril, H. (1947), The Psychology of Ego-involvement, New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. I. (1961), Social Judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Stebbins, R. A. (1980). Amateurs and hobbyist as concepts for the study of leisure problems. Social Problems,. 27(4), 413-418.

Stebbins, R. A. (1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. Pa-cific Sociological Review, 25, 251-272.

Stebbins, R. A. (1992). Amateurs, professionals, and serious leisure. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s.

Stebbins, R. A. (1996). The barbershop singer: inside the social world of a musical hobby. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.

Stebbins, R. A. (2001). Serious leisure. Society, 38(4), 53-57.

Stone, R. N. (1984). The marketing characteristics of involvement. Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 210-215.

Thapa, B., Confer, J., & Mendelsohn, J. (2004). Trip motivations among water-based recreationists: Policies, methods and tools for visitor management. Proceedings of The Second Interna-tional Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, Rovaniemi, Finland.

Todd, S. L., Graefe, A. R., & Mann, W. (2002). Differences in scuba diver motivations based on level of development. in scuba diver motivations based on level of development. In: Todd, S. (comp., ed.). Proceedings of the 2001 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-289, 107-114).

Trembath, E. M., Szabo, A., & Baxter, M. J. (2002). Participation mo-tives in leisure center physical activities. Athletic insight. [Online]. Available: http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol4Iss3/ LeisureCenterParticipationMotives.htm [2002, December 2]

Vilter, J., Blahna, D., & Van Patten, S. (1995). Trends in experience and management preferences of mountain bikers. In: Thompson, J.L., Lime, D.W., Gartner, B. & Sames, W.M. (comp.). Pro-ceedings of the Fourth International Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Trends Symposium and the 1995 National Recreation Resource Planning Conference; May 14–17; St. Paul, Minne-sota: University of Minnesota, College of Natural Resources and Minnesota Extension Service.

Voelkl, J. E., & Ellis, G. D. (1998). Measuring flow experiences in daily life: An examination of the items used to measure challenge and skill. Journal of Leisure Research, 30(3), 380-389.

Voelkl, J. E., & Ellis, G. D. (2002). Optimal experience in daily life: Examination of the predictors, dimensions and outcomes. In Abstracts from The 2002 Leisure Research Symposium, Ashburn, Virginia: National Recreation and Park Association.

Voelkl, J., Ellis, G., & Walker, J. (2003). Go with the flow. Parks & Recreation, 38(8), 20-29.

Walker, J. (2002). Exploring the influence of the individual's ability to experience flow while participating in a group-dependent activity on individual satisfaction with a group's performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Clemson University, Clem-son, South Carolina.

Watkins, M. (1987). The influence of involvement and information search of consumers’ choice of recreation activities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 3560A.

Webster, J., Trevino, K. L. & Ryan, L. (1993). The dimensionality and correlates of flow in human-computer interactions, Computers in Human Behavior, 9(4), 411-426.
Wellman, J. D. (1979). Recreational response to privacy stress: A validation study. Journal Leisure Research. 11(1), 61-73.

Whitmore, J. G., & Borrie, W. T. (2005). Exploring the usefulness of the Dispositional Flow Scale for outdoor recreation activities. Proceedings of The 2005 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (pp. 371-378). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station.

Willy, C. G., Shaw, S. M., & Havitz, M. E., (2000). Men’s and women’s involvement in sports: An examination of the gen-dered aspects of leisure involvement. Leisure Sciences, 22, 19–31.

Earth Policy Institute(2006). World bicycle and automobile production, 1950-2003. [Online]. Available: http://www.earth-policy.org/ Indicators/Bike/Bike_data.htm#fig1 [2006, November 2]

Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the involvement construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(Dec), 341-355.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top