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研究生:邱國瑞
研究生(外文):Kuo-jui Chiu
論文名稱:消費者知覺風險及關係行銷研究—以有機茶葉及有機驗證為例
論文名稱(外文):Perceived Risk and Relationship Marketing - A Case Study of Organic Tea and Organic Certification
指導教授:黃焜煌黃焜煌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kun-Huang Huarng,
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:經營管理碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:知覺風險有機驗證關係行銷有機茶葉信號理論
外文關鍵詞:Perceived riskRelationship marketingSignal theoryOrganic teaOrganic certification
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台灣茶業曾經走過近百年的外銷輝煌年代,時空轉變,內外在環境變遷,台灣茶葉遂由外銷導向改為內銷競爭,加上以越南中國大陸為首的進口茶葉,激烈的價格競爭,使得以精緻與高品質為主的台灣茶葉遭逢挫折與危機。本研究利用消費者深入訪談方式,知覺風險角度切入,探討其在茶葉消費者決策所佔的角色與影響,研究發現:
1.茶葉消費者的購買模式,是由以信任為主的生活經驗形成,一般對財務性和功能性知覺風險有較高的意識,對於身體性、心理性及社會性風險意識則較低。
2.由於選擇性及生活經驗影響,消費者茶葉購買決策對於身體性知覺風險採忽略態度,若是給予信號刺激則風險意識會昇高。
3.運用EKB模式分析結合社會學習理論分析,有機制度與有機驗證標章進行信號發射,刺激消費者知覺風險意識,可提高部份知覺風險意識。
4.以信號理論為原點,採關係行銷為策略架構,進行有機制度推廣 與有機驗證標章認知,可進一步提昇心理性及社會性知覺風險,在市場中形成差異化競爭優勢。
Taiwan tea industry has gone through the magnificent age of export trade for about a hundred years. As the environmental trend inside and outside the country has changed, the Taiwan tea industry turns from guidance of export trade into the competition of sales domestically. In addition the intense price competition with that imported from Vietnam and Mainland China has made Taiwan tea, which is famous for its fine and high quality primarily, meet another setback and crisis. This study discusses the roles and influences of tea consumers’ decision-making in the view of perceived risk by the way of interviewing with consumers. This study concludes the following points,
1. Purchase pattern of tea consumers is based on the life
experience of trust primarily, and generally has higher
perceived risks for financial and functional concerns,
and lower perceived risk for healthy, psychology, and
social risks.
2. Because of the affect of selectivity and the experience
of life, consumers take the attitude of ignoring the
health perceived risk, and if being stimulated by
signals then the perceived risk, will elevate.
3. Using the EKB pattern analysis combining society
learning theory, the organic system and the organic
certification marks launch signals and stimulate the
consumer perceived risk, awareness and may raise the
partial perceived risk, awareness.
4. By taking the signal theory as the original point, and
taking the relational marketing as the construction of
strategy to promote popularization of organic system
and awareness of organic confirmation marks, it
establishes the competition advantage of
differentiation in the market and elevates mental and
social perceived risk, even more.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
表目錄 iv
圖目錄 v
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 12
第三節 研究流程 12
第貳章 文獻回顧 14
第一節 風險的概念 14
第二節 消費者知覺風險 14
第三節 消費者知覺風險構面 16
第四節 社會學習理論與信號理論 19
第五節 關係行銷 22
第六節 有機茶葉行銷市場之調查 23
第參章 研究方法 25
第一節 資料來源 25
第二節 研究架構 26
第肆章 實證分析 29
第一節 台灣茶葉市場規模推估與市場概況分析 29
第二節 消費者知覺風險與有機認證關聯性研究 31
第三節 歸因分析 32
第四節 研究小結 46
第伍章 結論與建議 50
第一節 研究結論 50
第二節 研究建議 52
參考文獻 57

表目錄
表1-1 國際主要有機認證規範...................................................................9
表3-1 消費者知覺風險構面及操作性定義.............................................27
表4-1 受訪者背景及飲茶模式描述.........................................................33
表4-2 受訪者消費模式訪談內容摘要.....................................................34
表4-3 受訪者知覺風險態度訪談摘要.....................................................36
表4-4 一般消費模式下受訪者知覺風險構面.........................................37
表4-5 受訪者對於有機認證態度描述摘要.............................................39
表4-6 加入中介變項後消費者知覺風險變化.........................................41
表4-7 不同情境下受訪者知覺風險構面變化.........................................42
表4-8 以有機認證為中介變項後受訪者對有機茶葉知覺風險態度.....44
表4-9 加入中介變項後對茶葉消費者知覺影響程度.............................45
圖目錄
圖1-1 其他國家有機驗證標章.................................................................10
圖1-2 國內有機驗證單位及有機驗證標章.............................................11
圖1-3 研究流程圖.....................................................................................13
圖4-1 台灣茶葉1989-2006年進出口概況統計圖...................................31
圖4-2 同質狀況下有機產品對非有機產品消費者心理價格偏移.........46
圖5-1 以信號刺激知覺風險影響消費決策及形成經驗改變需求.........51
圖5-2 以有機認證標章為符號對消費者進行關係行銷.........................55
圖5-3 利用關係行銷策略形成市場區隔造就新生活價值與形態.........56
一、中文文獻
行政院農委會(2007),農產品生產及驗證管理法
行政院農委會(2007),農產品生產及驗證管理法施行細則草案
洪興立(2004)「以誠實信號在市場取勝」
莫藜藜(1992),「深度訪談法」,質化研究在社會工作界的應用。
陳滄河(1984),「我國執業會計師風險態度與情境因素、人格特質關係研究」政治大學會計研究所碩士論文
黃瑞群(1999),「消費者購買行動電話之資訊搜尋行為研究」,輔仁大學管理學研究所碩士論文
黃璋如(1997),「中德兩國有機農業之發展」農委會委託研究計畫報告
黃璋如(2002),「有機農業驗證制度與標章之研究」,2002年臺灣地區有機農業產業發展研討會專刊,pp.33-51
黃璋如(2003),「我國與歐美有機農產品驗證制度之比較」,農政與農情第129期
黃璋如(2004),「先進國家有機農產品的標章與標示」
黃璋如、黃淑真(2002),「整合有機商店落實認證制度及提昇有機農產品品質之研究」,建構整合性農產運銷體系與制度研討會
楊盛動、陳玄(2002),「有機茶行銷市場之調查」茶葉改良場建場百週年紀念專刊
廖克玲譯著(1982),社會學習論巨匠-班度拉
劉子豪(1998),「觀光團體全備旅遊知覺風險與資訊蒐集關聯性研究-以台北市居民為例」,國立交通大學管理科學研究所碩士論文
鄭燦堂(1999),風險管理理論與實務
鄧家駒(1998),「風險管理之理念與執行策略」,保險專刊第51期
二、英文文獻
Ackerlof G. (1970), “The market for lemons: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism,” Journal of Economic, 113, pp. 79-119.
Bandura A, & Walfers R.H. (1963), “Social learning and personality development,” Holt, Rinehart, Minston
Bandura A. (1978), “Social learning theory of aggressive,” Journal of Communication, 28(3), summer, pp. 12-29.
Bauer, Raymond A. (1960), “Consumer behavior as risk taking” In R.S. Hancock(Ed.), Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 389-398.
Beatty, Sharon E. & Scott M. Smith (1987), “External search effort: An investigation across several product categories,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14, pp. 83-95.
Bruce DeYoung (1988), “What is relationship marketing?” journal of Extension, 26 (3)
Cox D. F (1967), Risk Taking and Information Handing in Consumer Behavior, Boston: Harvard University Press, August, pp. 1-19.
Cox, Donald F.& Stuart U.Rich (1964), “Perceived risk and consumer decision-making--The case of telephone shopping,” Journal of Marketing Research, l(1), pp. 32-39.
Cunningham, S.M (1967), “The major dimension of perceived risk” in Donal F.Cox, Risk Talking and Information Handing in Consumer Behaviors; Harvard University press, pp. 82-108.
Dowling, G.R (1986), “Perceived risk: The concept and its measurement,” Psychology & Marketing, 3 , pp. 193-210.
Engel, J.F. R.D. Blackwell & P.W Miniard (1995), “Consumer Behavior”
Erdem, Tulin, 1998”, An Empirical Analysis of Umbrella Branding” Journal of Marketing Research, 35, p339-351.
Gronroos, C. (1994), “From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing,” Management Decisions, 32(2), pp. 4-20.
Harker M.J (1999), “Relationship marketing defined? An examination of current relationship marketing definitions,” Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 17(1), pp. 13-20.
Jacoby, J. & L. Kaplan (1972), “The components of perceived risk,” Proceedings of 3rd Annual Conference, Association of Consumer Research, pp. 382-393.
Kaplan, L., George J. Szybillo & Jacob Jacoby (1974), “Components of perceived risk in product purchase: A cross-validation,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, pp.287-291.
Kotler (1997), Marketing Management, Press Prentice-Hall.
Mayer, R.C, Davis, J.F & Schoorman, F.D (1995), “An integration model of organization trust,” Academy of management reviews, 20(3), pp. 709-734.
Robert M. Morgan & Shelby D. Hunter (1994), “Commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing,” Journal of marketing, 58, pp. 20-38.
Rogers, R. W (1975), “A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change,” Journal of Psychology, 91, pp. 93-114.
Roselius T (1971), “Consumer rankings of risk reduction methods,” Journal of Marketing, 35, pp. 56-61.
Sbel, C.F (1993), “Studies trust: building new forms of cooperation in a volatile economy,” Human Relation, 46, pp. 1132-1172.
Schiffman, L.G, Kanuk, L.L (2000), Consumer Behavior, 7th Edition
Solomon, M.R. (1999), “Consumer Behavior”, 4th ed.,
Spence, A.M. (1973), “Job Market Signaling”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87,p355-374.
Urbany, J. Dickson, P.R. Wilkie, W.L, (1989), “Buyers uncertainty and information search,” Journal of consumer Research, 16, pp. 208-215.
Zeithaml, V.A (1988), “Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence,” Journal of Marketing, 52, pp. 2-22.
Zucker, L. G., (1996), “Production of trust: Institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920,” Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, pp. 53-111.
三、參考網站
有機農業全球資訊網 http://info.organic.org.tw
行政院主計處 http://www.dgbas.gov.tw
行政院農委會 http://www.coa.gov.tw
行政院農委會茶業改良場 http://kminter.tres.gov.tw
行政院農委會農產貿易統計查詢系統 http://agrapp.coa.gov.tw
招職公司網站..http://jiujik.scmp.com/
財政部關稅總局 http://web.customs.gov.tw
農業要覽資料庫 http://stat.coa.gov.tw/
BioFach Newsletter (2006), “TAIWAN: SOME 800 STORES STOCK ORGANIC PRODUCTS”, No.112
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