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研究生:林啟同
研究生(外文):Lin Chi-Tung
論文名稱:柴油引擎使用生質燃料之清淨性評估
論文名稱(外文):Detergency and Performance Evaluation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Bio-Diesel Fuels
指導教授:哈冀連
指導教授(外文):Ha Jih-Lian
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:遠東科技大學
系所名稱:機械研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:生質柴油柴油引擎添加劑污染排放噴嘴阻塞率
外文關鍵詞:Bio-DieselDiesel EngineAdditivesEmissionNozzle Coking
相關次數:
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  生質柴油具備能源再生性、生物可分解等優點,且本身含硫量低、多環芳香烴及總芳香烴等有害物質的含量少,可有效降低柴油車之各類污染排放物。但長時間使用易氧化分解之生質柴油是否會導致引擎燃燒積污之增加進而影響其性能表現則較少文獻探討。
  本研究選用Mitsubishi-6D14重型柴油引擎,使用傳統化石柴油(SD-1)及摻配5%生質燃料之生質柴油(BD-5)兩種燃料進行相關評估測試。油品分析結果顯示:生質柴油之燃料黏度高,對引擎機件具備較佳之潤滑效果;而添加生質柴油可使十六烷值提高,有助於柴油引擎著火性的提昇。
  在引擎性能表現方面,使用BD-5生質柴油,對於引擎最大馬力及最大扭力之輸出分別減低0.3%及2.1%。不過,使用BD-5較傳統化石柴油耗油高達11.8%為其主要之缺點。而引擎使用生質柴油對THC及CO污染排放分別有8.2、14.6%之減量效果、對CO2則有3.6%之減量效果。 此外,對柴油引擎排放之粒狀污染物PM而言,使用BD-5生質柴油有最高12.9%之減量效果。在本實驗中引擎使用生質柴油對黑煙污染度及NOX排放指數並無顯著影響。
  以CEC-F23柴油清淨性能標準測試結果: 市售超級柴油之平均阻塞率為85 ± 6.4%,大致符合世界車廠對柴油噴嘴阻塞率< 85 %之要求。不過使用加入5%之生質柴油其噴油嘴積污阻塞率提高為90.9 ± 3.5 %,顯示使用BD-5生質柴油有致使噴油嘴積污提高之趨勢。
  使用添加清淨性添加劑之生質柴油 (BD-5A),經CEC-F23長時間測試結果,其噴油嘴積污平均阻塞率降為77 ± 7.7 %,顯示使用生質柴油雖有導致噴油嘴積污提高之趨勢,但可藉由添加清淨添加劑降低噴油嘴之積污。
  此外,柴油噴油嘴顯微影像顯示: 使用市售超級柴油SD-1經CEC-F23長時間積污結果其噴油嘴舉針呈現較均勻之積污分佈,而使用BD-5生質柴油之噴油嘴則呈現出不規則蜂窩狀積污。
  Bio-Diesel has the advantages of renewable and recyclable comparing to petro-chemical diesel fuels. As bio-fuel contents very low sulfur and total aromatics, vehicles emitted lower exhaust emissions using bio-blended diesel fuels. Fuel properties of bio-diesel, however, were reported to have problems on combustion deposit formation and storage stability because of their biodegradability.
  In this work, a heavy-duty diesel engine, Mitsbishi-6D14, was used to assess engine performance and exhaust emissions using two different fuels, namely, SD-1 (Petro-Diesel) and BD-5(Bio-blended Diesel). It was found that the maximum power-output and peak torque of the engine using BD-5 are lower than using SD-1 by 0.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Furthermore, a 11.8% increase of fuel economy was the main drawback of using bio-diesel.
  Exhaust emissions reduction for THC、CO、CO2、and PM of using BD-5 were found by 8.2%、14.6%、3.6% and 12.9%, respectively. It was also observed that NOx and Smoke emissions showed neutral in these tests.
  The average injector flow restriction rate (FRR) for CEC-F23 tests using SD-1 were ranged 85 ± 6.4%. It raised up to 90.9 ± 3.5 % as run on BD-5 fuel. This revealed that engine using bio-diesels may encourage fuel injector fouling. This fouling, however, may reduced by adding detergent additives into bio-diesels (BD-5A). A followed-up CEC-F23 test of using BD-5A has showed that the average flow injector restriction rate was reduced to 77 ± 7.7 %.
誌謝 I
摘要 III
Abstract V
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
符號表 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究動機 3
1-3 文獻探討 4
1-4 研究目的 9
第二章 柴油引擎理論基礎 12
2-1 柴油引擎基本作用原理 12
2-2 柴油引擎燃油燃燒模式 14
2-3 柴油引擎燃料系統 16
第三章 實驗計劃與實驗方法 18
3-1 實驗計劃 18
3-2 油品物、化性分析 19
3-3 引擎性能測試及污染檢測 19
3.3.1 測試用引擎介紹 23
3.3.2 引擎控制系統介紹 24
3.3.3 排氣採樣分析系統 25
3-4 燃料清淨性測試及評估 31
3.4.1 測試引擎及相關配備介紹 33
3.4.2 引擎測試系統 34
第四章 實驗結果與討論 41
4-1 油品物、化性分析結果 41
4-2 試驗油品對引擎馬力性能油耗之影響 48
4-3 引擎污染排放測試結果 53
4.3.1 黑煙及硫氧化物 53
4.3.2 氣態污染及PM排放 54
4-4 柴油引擎噴油嘴清淨性 56
4.4.1 預備測試 56
4.4.2 正式測試 60
4.4.3 噴油嘴阻塞率量測結果 61
第五章 結論與建議 66
5-1 結論 66
5-2 建議 67
參考文獻 69
附錄一 75
附錄二 77
附錄三 79
附錄四 81
附錄五 83
附錄六 85
自述 87
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