跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.175.191.36) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/01 00:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林慧慈
研究生(外文):Hui-Tzu Lin
論文名稱:從發展角度看道德思考的統整程度
論文名稱(外文):The Coherence of Moral Thinking from Developmental Perspective
指導教授:林文瑛林文瑛引用關係王震武王震武引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Ying LinJenn-Wu Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:佛光大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:統整局部統整認知發展道德思考矛盾整體統整
外文關鍵詞:moral thinkingcoherencecontradictionlocal coherenceglobal coherencecognitive development
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:307
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
皮亞傑的認知發展理論主張,解決認知衝突,達成內在認知與外在刺激的均衡,是促進發展的主要機制,因此,其理論顯然蘊含著,認知發展是解決矛盾,朝向統整的基本假設。同樣的,柯爾堡的道德發展理論,從情境取向到普世原則的發展,也意味著從特定情境的局部統整到普世原則的整體統整之發展趨勢。本研究想要釐清道德思考的統整(coherence)程度是否會隨著年齡而朝向越來越整體統整(global coherence)發展,驗證皮亞傑與柯爾堡的理論基礎。研究者編製有關偷竊、作弊、欺騙、守信主題的四個道德情境故事,每個故事後面,針對故事主角的行為,提供兩個彼此矛盾的道德評價,透過受試者對這兩個矛盾說法贊成的相關程度,即可瞭解受試者在道德思考上的統整程度如何。由於年齡不同的受試者必須選用不同的材料,本研究在研究一選用小學二年級到小學六年級的學生作為受試者,研究二則選用小學六年級到大學以上的學生作為受試者。研究一的結果顯示,在多數的情況底下,人們道德思考的統整程度都是隨著年齡增加而朝向越來越整體統整發展,但是其中「守信行為」例外。研究二的結果也符合原先預期的假設,顯示道德思考還是朝向整體統整方向發展,而且「守信行為」仍是一個例外的道德情境。從研究一與研究二的整體趨勢看來,道德思考確實就像皮亞傑或柯爾堡理論背後蘊含的假設:思考是朝向越來越整體統整發展的。然而,守信情境的例外結果顯示,道德情境的內容顯然是必須更進一步加以釐清的因素。除此之外,由於研究一與研究二所使用的方法是兩個矛盾說法並列的「透明比較法」,受試者容易覺察到矛盾,而不易顯示出更清楚的發展趨勢,因此研究者在研究三採用矛盾情境被適當隔開的「直接比較法」,以了解研究方法的不同是否會造成反應上的差異。研究三的結果顯示,從發展趨勢的角度看來,確實是在「直接比較法」的呈現方式,受試者表現出較明顯的局部統整現象。因此,思考的統整顯然須要覺察矛盾的能力,而察覺矛盾的能力直接、間接與認知能力的發展有關,也因此思考的統整程度也是有發展趨勢的。
The implicit assumption of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory is the development of cognitive coherence (equilibrium between internal cognitive structure and external environmental world).via resolution of cognitive conflict. The purpose of present research is to investigate whether the global coherence of moral thinking is increased by age. The author utilized four moral situations to evaluate the subjects’ responses to two contradictive arguments concerning behavior of stealing, cheating, cheating in an exam, breaking promise. The correlation of the two responses indicated the degree of coherence. Since the material should be developed differently for younger children and older subject, the author designed two studies to study two age groups; Study 1 for elementary school children, Study 2 for older subjects. Study 1 showed that sixth graders’ moral judgment is more coherent than third graders’ except “Breading Promise Story”. Study 2 showed that college students’ moral judgment is more coherent than sixth graders’ degree of coherence except “Breaking Promise Story” as well. Taking study 1 and study 2 into account, coherence of moral thinking is increased by age which support the implication by Piaget and Kohlberg’s theoretical hypothesis. Because Study 1 and Study 2’s used the “direct-transparent test” method which may induce the awareness of the conflict of the two arguments and hence decrease the age differences in judgments, Study 3 used “direct-subtle test” to test the effect of the obviousness of conflict. Study 3 showed that “direct-subtle test” is more sensitive than direct-transparent test from developmental perspective. This indicates that people higher ability to detect contradiction may be involved in the development of the coherence of moral thinking.
緒論 1
追求「認知統整」的心理動力 2
認知統整現象 4
認知統整現象的發展趨勢—閱讀研究 5
認知統整現象的發展趨勢—思考研究 6
道德思考的統整現象 7
研究目的 9
研究一 15
方法 15
結果 19
討論 21
研究二 25
方法 25
結果 28
討論 33
研究三 35
方法 35
結果 40
討論 45
綜合討論 46
參考文獻 49
附錄 52
參考文獻
王震武、林文瑛(2006),迷信思考特徵的發展趨勢。國科會研究計畫NSC 94-2413-H-431-004.(92.8~95.7)。
王震武、林文瑛(2005),迷信思考中的解釋效果。中華心理學刊,47,39-60。
李玉貴(1998),國小學童獻上閱讀故事體文章之推以類別分析研究。台北市立師範學院國民教育研究所86碩士論文。
林文瑛、王震武(1999),從發展的角度看理解統整。國科會研究計畫NSC 88-2413-H-030-009 (87.8~88.7)。
邱耀初(1999),矛盾性的中文諺語與權變思維關係之初探。應用心理研究,第一期,247-264。
邱耀初、黃榮村(1996),矛盾性訊息與推理問題困難度對真偽判斷的影響。教育心理學的教學與研究:國際研討會論文集,台北:師範大學教育心理與輔導學系。
陳春燕(2002),國小學生對故事體中因果關係知識的發展。國立中正大學教育研究所91碩士論文。
Albrecht, J. E., & O'Brien, E. J. (1993). Updating a mental model: Maintaining both local and global coherence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 1061-1070.
Beech, J., & Colley, A. (1987). Cognitive Approaches to Reading. Chichester: John Wiley.
Case, R. (1992). Neo-Piagetian theories of child development. In R.J. Sternberg & C.A. Berg. (Eds.), Intellectual Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 87, 477-531.
Freud, S. (1933). New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. S. E., 22, London: Hogarth.
Glenberg, A. M., & Langston, W. E. (1992). Comprehension of illustrated text: Pictures help to build mental models. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 129-151.
Hartshorne, H., & May, M. A. (1928). Studies in Deceit. New York.
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
Manktelow, K. (2000). Reasoning and Thinking. Psychology Press.
McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (1992) Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440-466.
Myers, J. L., O'Brien, E. J., Albrecht, J. E., & Mason, R. A. (1994). Maintaining global coherence during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 876-886.
Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialize theory and research. Chicago: Rand Mcnally.
Kohlberg, L. (1981). Essays on moral development: The philosophy of moral development. New York: Harper & Row.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.). New York:International University Press.
Piaget, J. (1965). The Moral Judgment of the child. New York: Free Press. (originally published 1932).
Piaget, J. (1976). Judgement and reasoning in the child. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co.
Piaget, J. (1980). Adaptation and intelligence:Organic selection and phenocopy. (S. Eames, Trans. ). Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
Piaget, J. (1985). The equilibration of cognitive structures: the central problem of intellectual development (T. Brown & K. J. Thampy, Trans). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ruffman, T. (1999). Children’s understanding of logical inconsistency. Child Development, 70, 872-886.
Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531-543.
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1983). Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment. Psychological Review, 90, 293-315.
Wright, R. E., & Rosenberg, S. (1993). Knowledge of text coherence and expository writing: A developmental study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 152-158.
Yang, K. S. (1998).Chinese responses to modernization: A psycholofical analysis. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1, 75-97.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top